Application Exercise.Paper details:
My lecturer is asking me to write 3000-word application exercise that needs to be written in essay format following all the subheadings shown in guidance sheet that is going to be attached as materials file. All the questions written in the guidance sheet need to be answered and they should be answered in sociological knowledge with a good amount of Harvard references, so please pay attention to guidance sheet as the whole content is there. I would strongly advise opening the guidance sheet as the whole text in the document I have attached doesn’t get mixed up like in does over here. Please also use the language that is adequate for a second-year undergraduate university student. If for any reasons you cannot open the guidance sheet, this is what needs to be done:
Two of the most central concepts in the philosophy of science are ontology and epistemology. Ontology refers to the claims or assumptions that a particular approach to social enquiry makes about the nature of social reality. An epistemology is a theory of knowledge; it presents a view and a justification for what can be regarded as knowledge – and what criteria such knowledge must satisfy in order to be called knowledge rather than beliefs.
(adapted from N. Blaikie, Approaches to Social Enquiry, Polity 1993)
Sociological explanations of human actions must take account of the meanings which those concerned assign to their acts. Explanations which assert that action is determined by external and constraining forces, cultural or material, are inadmissible.
The issue of “race” has very little to do with cultural misunderstanding; nor do the origins of racial disadvantage lie in the existence and operation of racial stereotypes. Instead the primary focus of analysis has to be racial exploitation and the associated relations of domination and subordination which are endemic in the very structure of society.
Though not capable of being seen, …. structures of cultural rules are as real to the individual whose behaviour is determined by them as is the world’s physical structure which they also confront. Society, in a famous phrase of Durkheim’s, is a reality ‘sui generis’ – it has its own existence.
(Pip Jones, Studying Society, pp. 25 – 26)
The new order has implications too for the way we divvy up the world’s wealth. When global capitalism really began to get going at the beginning of the 19th century, the top 20% of the world enjoyed three times as much income as the bottom 20%. Today …….. the top 20% creams off 86% of the world’s income. The bottom 20% manage only 1%. Your heart need not bleed overmuch to conclude that inequality on that scale is scarcely compatible with the notion of a global moral community.
(John Humphrys, The Little Starving Boy and The Brave New Moral Order, Sunday Times, 7th Oct, 2001)
Questions (attempt all six)
1. Describe the ontological assumptions which underpin Item B. Justify your response with reference to the text. (5 marks)
2. Describe the ontological assumptions which underpin Item C. Justify your response with reference to the text. (5 marks)
3. With reference to particular theorists discuss what macro and micro-sociology is and the differences between them
4. Describe the ontological and epistemological implications of Item D.
5. With reference to Item E, outline the ontological position of John Humphrys.
6. Discuss the opposing propositions that post-modernism has a lot or indeed nothing to contribute to social theory (30 marks)