Battlefields Tourism

Order Description

BattleFields Tourism : The status of Heritage Tourism in Dundee, South Africa

https://www.bulletinofgeography.umk.pl/26_2014/09_Merwe.pdf

A detailed critical review of a journal article, 2000 words, addresses Learning Outcomes :

A critical understanding of the key concepts and issues
associated with international tourism.

The ability to critically appraise academic literature on
tourism.

Brief: Critically review one academic article.
Assessment 1: Review
A detailed critical review of a journal article, 2000 words, addresses Learning Outcomes 1 and 3.
? A critical understanding of the key concepts and issues associated with international tourism.
? The ability to critically appraise academic literature on tourism.
Why do it?
? Review articles summarise and evaluate current studies (research articles) on a particular topic
? Writing a critical review of a journal article can help to improve your research skills
? By assessing the work of others, you develop skills as a critical reader and become familiar with the types of evaluation criteria that will be applied to research in your ?eld and thus your own research
What to do
? Read the article carefully ? Analyse the article ? Evaluate the quality and originality of the research, as well as its relevance and presentation ? Identify its strengths and weaknesses, and its overall value to existing research ? Do not be confused by the term critique: it does not mean that you only look at the negative aspects of what the researcher has done. You should address both the positive and negative aspects.
How to do it
Select an article (you have 3 choices or can alternatively make your own choice) on a topic that most interests you
Analyse the text. Use the following questions to help you understand how and why the research was carried out: ? What is the author’s central purpose? In other words, what is the article/research trying to achieve? This is important in order to evaluate to what extent the purpose has been achieved. Look at the ABSTRACT and INTRODUCTION
How to do it
Analysing the text cont.
? Assessment of theory ? What theories and existing research are reviewed and discussed? How relevant are they for the research purpose? Based on your knowledge and judgement, do you think any have been left out? If so, which ones and why do you consider them relevant? Are the sources/references used relevant for the research focus and up-to-date (based on the year of publication not 2016!)? Look at the LITERATURE REVIEW/THEORY section
How to do it
Analysing the text cont.
? What methods were used to accomplish this purpose? ? What were the techniques used (research approach and methods)? And how was each technique performed (data collection)? ? What kind of data can be obtained using each technique? ? How are such data interpreted? ? What kind of information is produced by using the technique? Look at METHODOLOGY/METHODS.
This means you need a solid understanding of research approaches and methods, i.e. recommended use, advantages and limitations, type of data and analysis techniques
How to do it
Analysing the text cont.
? What objective evidence was obtained from the author’s e?orts? What were the results of the study? How did the results contribute to answering the purpose/objectives of the research? Look at RESULTS
? How were the results interpreted? How were they related to the original problem (author’s view of evidence rather than objective ?ndings)? Look at DISCUSSION
How to do it
Analysing the text cont.
Further look at: ? Were the author(s) able to answer the research question/purpose raised? ? Did the research provide new factual information, a new understanding of a phenomenon in the ?eld, a new research technique? ? How was the signi?cance of the work described? In other words, what is the value/contribution of the research? ? Did the reported observations/interpretations support or refute observations or interpretations made by other researchers?
How to do it
Understanding the broader research context: ? Who conducted the research? What were/are their interests? ? When and where was the research conducted? ? Why did they do this research? ? Was this research pertinent only within the authors’ or a particular geographic locale, or did it have broader (even global) relevance? ? On what prior observations was the research based? What was and was not known at the time? ? How important was the research question posed by the researcher?
How to do it
Evaluating the text After you have read the article and answered the questions in the previous section, you should have a good understanding of the research undertaken. You can now begin to evaluate the author’s research. Making judgements about someone else’s work is often the most difficult part of writing the review. Many students feel that, because they are new to a discipline, they do not have enough knowledge to make judgements of other people’s work.
Use the following checklist to support your evaluation.
How to do it
Evaluating the text cont.
INTRODUCTION ? Read the statement of purpose at the end of the introduction. What was the objective of the study? ? Consider the title. Does it precisely state the subject of the paper? ? Read the statement of purpose in the abstract. Does it match the one in the introduction? ? Check the sequence of statements in the introduction. Does all the information lead coherently to the purpose of the study?
How to do it
Evaluating the text cont.
METHODS ? Review all methods in relation to the objective(s) of the study. Are the methods valid for studying the problem? ? Check the methods for essential information. Could the study be duplicated from the methods and information given? ? Check the methods for ?aws. Is the sample selection adequate? Is research design sound?
How to do it
Evaluating the text cont.
RESULTS ? Examine carefully the data as presented in the tables, diagrams, quotations, images (depending on research approach and method). ? Does the text complement, and not simple repeat data? Are there discrepancies between the results in the text and those in the tables? ? Review the results in light of the stated objectives. Does the study reveal what the researcher intended?
How to do it
Evaluating the text cont.
DISCUSSION ? Check the interpretation against the results. Does the discussion merely repeat the results? Does the interpretation arise logically from the data or is it too far-fetched? Have the faults/?aws/shortcomings of the research been addressed? ? Is the interpretation supported by other research cited in the study? ? Does the study consider key studies in the ?eld? ? Are there other research possibilities/directions suggested?
How to do it
Evaluating the text cont.
OVERVIEW ? Re-read the abstract. Does it accurately summarise the article? ? Check the structure of the article (?rst headings and then paragraphing). Is all the material organised under the appropriate headings? Are sections divided logically into subsections or paragraphs? ? Are stylistic concerns, logic, clarity and expression adequately addressed?
How to do it
Evaluating the significance of the research
Finally, it is important to establish whether the research has been successful ? has it led to new questions being asked, new ways of using existing knowledge? Are other researchers citing this paper? To do this, consider the following questions: ? How did other researchers view the signi?cance of the research reported by the author(s)? ? Did the research reported in your article result in the formulation of new questions or hypotheses (by the authors, by other researchers)? ? Have other researchers subsequently supported or refuted the observations/interpretations of these authors? ? Did the research make a signi?cant contribution to knowledge? ? Did the research produce any practical applications? ? What are the outcomes of this research? ? How do you evaluate the signi?cance of the research?
How do it
Evaluating the significance of the research cont.
Look at research articles to see how other people have used this work; what range of journals have cited this article?
Structuring your critical review Introduction ? In the introduction, cite the journal article in full and then provide the background to this piece of research, establishing its place within the ?eld. Use the answers to the questions in Understanding the broader research context to develop this section. Body ? Follow the structure of the journal article. Evaluate each section of the article ? Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion ? highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of each section. Use the answers to the questions in Evaluating the text to develop this section. Conclusion ? In this section, sum up the strengths and weaknesses of the research as a whole. Establish its practical and theoretical signi?cance. Use the answers to questions Evaluating the signi?cance of the research to develop this section.
You might want to consider to use sub-headings for the main body of your review. Make sure you include a bibliography at the end (start a new page) which lists all sources that you have consulted and directly referenced in your work.
For further guidance
These slides have been adapted from: McLaughlin Library, University of Guelph, http://www.lib.uoguelph.ca/get- assistance/writing/specific-types-papers/using-scientific- journal-article-write-critical-review

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