business and ethics
What is an ideology in general? What are the two main types of ideologies relevant to business activity in the U.S.? What are the distinctions between ?free market? and ?command? systems? What components are necessary for each? How does Locke define the state of nature and the law of nature? How do these ideas lead to private property rights and the limitation of governmental power? What four problematic assumptions does Locke make that might cast some doubt on his defense of free market economies? How does Adam Smith defend free markets on utilitarian grounds? What should government do, according to Smith, to advance the public welfare? Why do monopolistic industries, pollution, and concern for others present difficulties for Adam Smith’s theory? How did John Maynard Keynes criticize the free market economy? What does he claim is necessary to maximize the social utility of the economic system? Why does stagflation present an obstacle to his theory? Define Social Darwinism. How was Spencer’s version of this idea modified to be less callous? What are the basic problems with the idea? What are Marx’s four forms of alienation? How does each form help to increase inequalities of wealth and power? 10.How does Marx reply to the utilitarian argument that without private property there would be no incentive to work? Is his reply persuasive? 11.What is substructure? Superstructure? How are these ideas relevant to the real purpose of government? 12.What does Marx mean by immiseration of workers? What three tendencies will help bring this about? Why did immiseration not actually occur? 13. What is a mixed economy? Why would society want to consider such a system? Does it work anywhere in the world today? 14.How do new technologies, such as computers and scientific breakthroughs, create difficulties for systems of property ownership?