Challenge of optimizing the human
. PURPOSE. This Advisory Circular (AC) presents guidelines for developing, implementing, reinforcing, and assessing crew resource management (CRM) training for flight crewmembers and other personnel essential to flight safety. CRM training is designed to become an integral part of training and operations. These guidelines were originally intended for Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 121 certificate holders who are required by regulation to provide CRM training for pilots and flight attendants, and dispatch resource management (DRM) training for aircraft dispatchers. Fractional ownership program managers, required by 14 CFR part 91, subpart K to provide CRM training to pilots and flight attendants, and those 14 CFR part 135 operators electing to train in accordance with part 121 requirements, should also use these guidelines. Certificate holders and individuals operating under other operating rules, such as parts 91 (apart from subpart K), 125, and part 135 operators not electing to train in accordance with part 121, and others, should find these guidelines useful in addressing human performance issues. This AC presents one way, but not necessarily the only way, that CRM training may be addressed. CRM training focuses on situation awareness, communication skills, teamwork, task allocation, and decisionmaking within a comprehensive framework of standard operating procedures (SOP).
b. CRM Training. The application of team management concepts in the flight deck environment was initially known as cockpit resource management. As CRM training evolved to include flight attendants, maintenance personnel and others, the phrase “Crew Resource Management” was adopted.
(1) As used in this AC, CRM refers to the effective use of all available resources: human resources, hardware, and information. Other groups routinely working with the cockpit crew, who are involved in decisions required to operate a flight safely, are also essential participants in an effective CRM process. These groups include but are not limited to:
(a) Aircraft dispatchers.
(b) Flight attendants.
(c) Maintenance personnel.
(d) Air traffic controllers.
(2) CRM training is one way of addressing the challenge of optimizing the human/machine interface and accompanying interpersonal activities.
These activities include team building and maintenance, information transfer, problem solving, decisionmaking, maintaining situation awareness, and dealing with automated systems.
CRM training is comprised of three components: initial indoctrination/awareness, recurrent practice and feedback, and continual reinforcement.