Communications: Theories

COMMUNICATION HOMEWORK(4)

Communications: Theories

“Narrative Paradigm” of Walter Fisher
“Media Ecology” of Marshall McLuhan
“Semiotics” of Roland Barthes
“Cultural Studies” of Stuart Hall
“Uses and Gratifications” of Elihu Katz
“Cultivation Theory” of George Gerbner
“Agenda-Setting Theory” of Maxwell McCombs & Donald Shaw

GUIDELINES:
1. Briefly, explain each theory assigned above in your own words.
2. Illustrate how the theory explains “real world” situations. 3. Choose one of the following options to illustrate and apply the theory: a. Movie or television: Choose a scene or set of scenes from movie or television program you think is a good illustration of a communication theory in the assigned reading chapters. Explain how/why this movie or television episode illustrates the theory. b. Print media: Choose a passage or set of passages from a book or written article (news, commentary, comic) that exemplify a communication theory in assigned reading text. Explain how/why this passage can be understood in terms of the theory. c. Personal experience: Choose a personal experience you have had that exemplifies a communication theory in assigned reading text. Explain how/why this experience exemplifies the theory. 4. What questions come up for you as you reflect on the reading chapter; i.e., critique and/or questions that you would like to explore and find answers to. 5. Reflections are MINIMUM two pages – Times New Roman – 12 font and 1.5 spaced. Sources, if any used, are properly cited according to APA citation format
3. Choose one of the following options to illustrate and apply the theory: a. Movie or television: Choose a scene or set of scenes from movie or television program you think is a good illustration of a communication theory in the assigned reading chapters. Explain how/why this movie or television episode illustrates the theory. b. Print media: Choose a passage or set of passages from a book or written article (news, commentary, comic) that exemplify a communication theory in assigned reading text. Explain how/why this passage can be understood in terms of the theory. c. Personal experience: Choose a personal experience you have had that exemplifies a communication theory in assigned reading text. Explain how/why this experience exemplifies the theory. 4. What questions come up for you as you reflect on the reading chapter; i.e., critique and/or questions that you would like to explore and find answers to. 5. Reflections are MINIMUM two pages – Times New Roman – 12 font and 1.5 spaced. Sources, if any used, are properly cited according to APA citation format
4. What questions come up for you as you reflect on the reading chapter; i.e., critique and/or questions that you would like to explore and find answers to. 5. Reflections are MINIMUM two pages – Times New Roman – 12 font and 1.5 spaced. Sources, if any used, are properly cited according to APA citation format
5. The total assignment is a MINIMUM of 5 pages – Times New Roman – 12 font and 1.5 spaced. DO NOT CITE. DO NOT PLAGIARISE.

I have attached a sample paper for the exact same assignment that I had submitted previously for different theories. Definitely, check it as you will know exactly what is expected. Due: Wednesday 10 am

Reflection
Name
Institution
Communication Theories
1. Muted Group Theory
According to Cheris Kramarae, the muted group theory is about the dominance of men in communication. Since men are dominant in the society, they initiated communication so, the process mutes women’s opinions. Therefore, language does not serve both men and women equally because the men regard the women’s outlooks as less competent. Women adapted to the situation of men controlling communication so, they remain muted. Additionally, the inequality is based on the varying experiences and division of labor between men and women.
The concepts of the muted theory are evident in real life. Take the case of the way the popular culture especially music portrays both men and women. Most secular music videos target male fans by portraying women as sex symbols. The women in the music videos are skimpily dressed and dance seductively while the men are fully clothed. Besides, as compared to female singers, male singers often use abusive language in their songs to refer to women.
The muted group theory can be seen in the television show, Mad Men. The program takes place in a New York advertising company in the 1960s. The women in the firm have various positions that depend on physical appearance, marital status, and other criteria. Mad Men portrays the muted group theory because the women are seen as inferior to the men in the company. The muted group theory assumes that due to gender roles, men are dominant. The men in the show have almost all the opportunities so the women cannot take control no matter how they try.
While reading the muted group theory, I wondered, are all men and women alike? One of the weaknesses of is that it generalizes men and women irrespective of their race, culture, or even age. It assumes that all men are similar and women are alike. Some men might be dominant but others are not. Moreover, not all women will fear saying what they want as the muted group theory claims. Moreover, the theory does not apply in this decade since some women are more dominant than men are so they are not muted.
2. Genderlect Styles
The genderlect theory describes the different cultural dialects that men and women depict during communication. Consequently, men and women have varying communication styles that sometimes result in misunderstandings. Deborah Tannen claimed that when women are speaking, their style stress human connection but male communication is all about independence and status.
The genderlect theory is evident in everyday situations. For instance, the behavior of men talking more in public platforms and women in private conversations falls under the genderlect concepts. The genderlect theory states that men strive for status and independence and women need connection and rapport in communication. Hence, women love private conversations that have a high chance of connecting emotionally with other people. However, it is difficult to connect with others when talking in public. Nonetheless, since men require status, they like public forums that have many people to recognize them during communication.
My brother and I have varying ways of communicating. During a conversation, I listen to him, constantly ask questions, and assure him I am listening. However, my brother does not seem to listen actively since he does not even ask a single question and we usually misunderstand each other due to that. The scenario demonstrates genderlect theory because it has the concepts that Deborah Tannen claimed in her model. Women value intimacy and true solidarity so they pose questions during conversations. Nevertheless, since men want status, they shun from asking questions because they might lose face. The theory explains why I tend to listen actively and prefer that my brother listen to me, which he does not seem to do.
Although the genderlect theory explains the misunderstandings that occur between men and women during their communication due to diverse speaking styles, it ignores gender differences that exist across cultures. It assumes that the whole world has only two cultures: the male and the female culture. Men in one culture might have communication styles that differ from the men of another culture. Besides, it does not consider the power inequalities between men and women. Men and women are likely to misunderstand each other during conversations because of power imbalances. However, Deborah Tannen claimed that the gender differences are the only factors that affect the effectiveness of communication between males and females.

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