compare approaches to corruption at the local government level in planning between Australia (or Brisbane?) and Hong Kong.

Order Description
This Journal Article is to be a high quality critique and reflect on the nature, role and value of planning both in practice and in theory, which integrates relevant literature where appropriate. The Journal Article is about issues or topics that have broader relevance to planning. These issues arise from urban planning and you must make clear in your article how the issue arose from urban planning. Your article must be a thoroughly well-researched, well written, well argued, and properly referenced paper. Aim for perfect spelling and excellent grammar. This means you will have to do, at the very least, three drafts of your report to get it right. Accordingly, this article is to be written in a format for submission to Queensland Planner. This means that you will have to write and reference in accordance with their requirements. See the ?Notes to Contributors? which appears on the first or last inside page of the journal and you should read the Queensland Planner (or select Journal) to get a feel for the style. You may think that the topic you choose is not suitable for Queensland Planner. In that case you are free to choose another journal ? say Queensland Geographer or Australian Planner. You need to use the annotated bibliography to help you write your literature review and discussion in your journal article. Remember that synthesis is important as you move from annotated bibliography to other forms of writing.

1. Benito, B., Guillam?n, M., & Bastida, F. (2015). Determinants of urban political corruption in local governments Crime, Law and Social Change, 63(3-4), 191-210. doi:10.1007/s10611-015-9563-9
Data originating from local governments in Spain was collected and used to investigate and profile the various factors or elements promoting corruption in the local governments. The authors reviewed data from the urban planning systems in Spain and identified the common features that are present in areas of corruption. The findings of the study allude to the conclusion that sufficient salaries for the politicians in the local governments and a transparent environment are critical when it comes to the prevention of corrupt practices in the local governments.
The authors have sufficient academic backgrounds in the area of social criminology and local government management councils. Because the article is published in a reputable journal, it is an indication that the information is of high authority. This article has been written using the key tenets of scholarly material. The literature review is conducted in a complete manner and the limitations associated with the study are also discussed. The researchers have also used vocabulary that is understandable to a wider audience hence another strength of the article. These elements makes the article appropriate for investigating the topic of study. Overall, this article touches on the various facets of urban planning systems and corruption in the local governments. As a result, it will be used as a primary source for the study.

2. Chiodelli, F., & Moroni, S. (2015). Corruption in land-use issues: a crucial challenge for planning theory and practice. Town Planning Review, 86(4), 437-455.
The objective of this article was to inform the readers about corruption cases related to land use in the local governments and how such corruption interferes with the planning and practices in the local governments. In particular, the authors collected corruption information regarding land use in the different urban centers to understand how corruption affects planning systems in the local governments.
The two authors have relevant academic backgrounds related to urban planning which gives the information in the article significant credibility and authority.The strength of this article centers on two observations. For a start, the authors review the works that have been done by other scholars in the area of corruption and urban planning as it applies to land use. Second, the article is current given that it has been recently published which means that it contains the different information concerning land use and corruption cases. On the other hand, the weakness that the article has is that it is focused on the aspect of land use only. Despite being centered on land corruption, the article will form an important component of the study given that land is one of the important elements in urban planning and one which is mentioned in many corruption scandals. The information is thus relevant to the topic of study.

3. Dodson, J., Coiacetto, E & Ellway, C. (2009). Corruption in the Australian Land Development Process: Identifying a research agenda. Urban Research Program, Griffith University
In this article, the authors expatiate how corruption takes place in the land development processes of urban centers of Australia. The authors highlight the loopholes exploited by corrupt officials when handling land matters in the urban centers. The authors conclude that the auditing systems used by the local government are inefficient and mediates the corruption processes to take place.
Dodson, Coaicetto and Ellway all have affiliations with Griffith University at the departments of Urban Research and Environmental planning. In this sense, the information provided by the authors has substantial authority. The academic backgrounds of the authors also give additional authority to the article granted they have relevant trainings in urban planning and local governance. One of the strengths of the article concerns the enumeration of the different corrupt schemes used by local government officials when conducting land deals. The authors also probe the land development process in Australia from wider perspectives hence this represents another strength. A possible weakness of the article is that it also focuses on the land aspect although there are a number of urban development areas involving corruption. This article will also be used in the research given that the information is material to the topic study and that the authors discuss the issue of land corruption in depth.

4. Doig, A. (2014). Roadworks Ahead? Addressing Fraud, Corruption and Conflict of Interest in English Local Government. Local Government Studies, 40(5), 670-686. doi:10.1080/03003930.2013.859140
In this article, the author describes the corruption in the English Local Government from the perspective of the ethical governance framework. The author accounts for the persistence of corruption scandals in the English local government despite the recognition of the significance of ethics in stemming corruption. The author remarks that the key to eliminating corruption in the local governments is through the commitment to the pursuance of ethical ideals.
A unique feature of the article is that the author discusses the ethics element that many authors fail to highlight when investigating corruption issues in local government. The author also suggests the ethical practices that can be introduced to help prevent corruption as extended within the local government systems. Moreover, the article is also published recently and this implies that it contains diverse information relating to corruption in the local governments and planning programs. These features give the article a significant quality for research purposes. Although most of the information originates from the author, the article is still important for the study because the author explains the various faces of corruption within the local governments and how they are linked to the inept ethical frameworks. In other words, despite the subjective nature of the article, the author manages to articulate the information and recognizes the previous work done in the same area. Overall, the article will be used to derive insights about the corruption in the local governments.

5. Erlingsson, G. O., Bergh, A., & Sj?lin, M. (2008). Public Corruption in Swedish Municipalities ? Trouble Looming on the Horizon? Local Government Studies, 34(5), 595-608. doi:10.1080/03003930802413780
Erlinghon et al. discuss corruption in the Swedish municipalities. The authors explain the different forms of corruptions as perpetuated by urban developers and local government officials. Using the previous data on past corruption cases in the municipalities, the authors try to estimate the future effects of corruption if the vice is not uprooted. From the outcomes of the research, the authors list the possible solutions that can curb corruption in the local governments.
The individuals who have written the article have sufficient knowledge in the various aspects of urban planning and the Swedish local government system and therefore the information is of high authority. They have profiled the various categories of corruptions in local governments and this makes the article easy to understand. The language used also appeals to a wider audience and therefore another good aspect of the article. However, the article is mainly focused on the corruption cases in the Swedish local government system and thus a limitation. Although the article is centered on Swedish municipalities, local governance is a worldwide phenomenon hence the information can be applicable to other local governments in other areas as well. This feature makes the article a useful reference.

6. Fisman, R, & Roberta, G.(2002). Decentralization and Corruption: Evidence Across Countries. Journal of Public Economics,83:325-345
The objective of this article was to inform the readers about corruption cases in the local governments and the ways in which the corruption interferes with the planning and practices in the local governments. In particular, the authors collected corruption information in diverse countries from Europe, Africa, Asia, and America to understand how corruption affects planning systems.
The two authors have relevant academic backgrounds related to urban planning which gives the information in the article significant credibility and authority. The strength of this article centers on two observations. For a start, the authors review the works that have been done by other scholars in the area of corruption and urban planning as experienced in different countries. Second, the authors cover the diverse forms of corruption as perpetuated in local governments and this means the information is comprehensive. The article will form an important component of the study given that it embodies the corrupt practices in the local governments.

7. Frew, W., Minh, J. & Matthew, M. (2008). Secret files expose sway of developers. Sydney Morning Herald, 12?13 April, pp. 1, 4
Information from local government councils in Australia was utilized to write the article about corruption in Australia urban centers. The authors used the data from the various municipal councils in Australia to show the strategies used by developers in the urban areas to secure contracts. The authors? remark developers use bribes, sexual favors, and tokens to secure the development contracts.
The authors obtained the information used to write the story from recognized institutions in Australia. As such, the information has credibility and high level of authority. The article exposes the mechanisms used by developers to acquire contracts in the urban centers and authors have also backed their claims with credible evidence from the relevant institutions in Australia. The writers of the article have also compared the corruption strategies used by Australian developers to those used by developers in other countries and this comparative approach helps to put corruption in local governments into perspective. This article will be used as a core source of information as the authors underscore the corruption strategies used by developers to attract local government officials

8. Garc?a-Quesada, M., Jim?nez, F., & Villoria, M. (2015). Can?t control/won?t control: opportunities and deterrents for local urban corruption in Lanzarote. Crime, Law and Social Change, 63(1-2), 1-20.
In this article, the authors investigated the opportunities for corruptions as well as the deterrents of corruption within the context of the Lanzorte Island. Using the available data from 1998-2006, the authors highlighted the key corruption scandals that occurred in the island. The authors conclude from the findings of the study that the lack of formal incentive structure coupled with the numerous expectations that are contrary to the common good are the key precipitators of corruption in the local government of Lanzorte.
From an academic background point of view, the authors have received adequate trainings in criminal-related issues as well as social ills affecting governance in public service. The affiliations with the recognized higher learning institutions and the academic qualifications of the authors provide the article with proven authority.
The authors have tackled the issue of corruption in local governments from the viewpoint of criminal investigation officers and this approach offers critical insights as to the role of legal system in curbing corruption at the local government levels. Throughout the article, the authors have embraced a logical approach to the corruption and this leads to sound conclusions from the findings. The article is also published recently which means it brings new and comprehensive information connected to corruption in local governments. The article is not only well researched but also includes pragmatic suggestions that can be used to prevent corruptions in the local governments. These features readily qualifies the article as one of the important ones to be used for the research.

9. Graycar, A., & Prenzler, T. (2013). Designing out Corruption in Urban Planning. Understanding and Preventing Corruption, 127-139. doi:10.1057/9781137335098_9
The objective of the study was to ascertain the ways in which corruption takes place during the processes of urban planning and how such corruption loopholes can be sealed. By analyzing the various data on corruption and urban planning, the authors reflected on the potential drivers for corruption in the local governments during urban planning processes and what can be done to prevent the mess.
Graycar and Prenzler that have the necessary backgrounds that qualifies them to discuss the issue and this gives the article authority.The authors are forthcoming about their method in the study and they supplement their experiences with scholarly material in the same area. Moreover, the authors recognize the possible limitations that may accompany the implementation of the proposed model to prevent the corruption in the local governments. This article is timely, well researched and descriptive in a way that helps to illuminate the issue of corruption in the local governments. This article is useful and applicable to the research as the authors highlight the important steps that need to be adopted to curtail the corruption in the local governments.

10. Green, P. (2005). Disaster by Design Corruption, Construction and Catastrophe. British Journal of Criminology, 45(4), 528-546.
There is a human dimension when it comes to earthquakes and other natural disasters. The human dimension is what results in an exacerbation of the disaster. This seems to form the basis of the arguments as laid out by author. The background and the main example presented in this study are that of the Marmara earthquake. The area in which the earthquakes happened and the collapse of buildings was not a surprise for the country as this was an area that was earthquake prone. It lies on a fault rupture line. Multistoried reinforced concrete buildings were built in the region. The corruption as author points out lies in this context.
It is interesting that the paper has assumed the natural disasters as being brought on by the politician and economic decisions of the state, more than just that of a natural element. The advice made by the author is that of the necessity of Government to handle corruption that leads to this state. The author calls the behavior of the Government that is corrupt as being deviant. Deviant is a social concept that is usually attributed to the behavior of men when they are deviant from the norm. Where there is deviant behavior observed in the case of a state, then there would be issues for the state planning as seen in the case of the Turkey earthquakes. There are dynamics between the corruption state of the country, of the corporate power in the country and even the natural disaster precipitation. In this case, the paper argues for a reinterpretation of natural disasters in terms of human rights violations, while developing themes around state culpability.

11. Hanssen, G. S., & Falleth, E. I. (2014). Market-Oriented Urban Planning ? Constraining Citizen Participation. Local Government Studies, 40(3), 403-428. doi:10.1080/03003930.2013.834254
Concerning this article, the authors analyze the corruption cases in local governments from the lens of public participation. Through qualitative case studies and broad -base surveys, the researchers managed to map out the attitudes of planners and councilors towards the public when it comes to development issues in the local governments. The authors observed that the market-oriented approach adopted by the local government officials coupled with the lack of public participation is a source of corruption scandals in the local governments.
Hansenn and Falleth have written widely about political steering of urban planning, environmental planning, and democracy in local governance systems. The significance of this article emerges from the observation that it tackles the corruption issue from the area of public participation and the approach adopted by local government officials while undertaking the development projects in the urban councils. The authors have also conducted critical reviews on the planning processes as followed by local governments in Norway and this gives additional strength to the article. Based on the information provided in the article, this information will be used to dissect the research topic from different angles. The article will be specifically important in reviewing the literature connected to urban planning and corruption in the local governments.

12. Henderson, J. V., & Kuncoro, A. (2006). “Sick of Local Government Corruption? Vote Islamic” NBER Working Paper No. 12110.
In this paper, the authors describe corruption in Indonesia local governments as they relate to planning matters in the urban centers. The paper investigates whether the local politics shape the corruption scandals in the Indonesia local government systems. Using benchmarks data from 2004 and 2006, the authors compare the levels of corruptions between the Islamic led councils and those led by non-Islamic personnel. The authors conclude that the ethical principles embraced in Islamic teachings make the Islamic led councils less corrupt.
The two authors have written about corruption cases in Indonesia and there works have been published in reputable journals of Indonesia. Therefore, the information contained in the conference paper are critical in the investigation of corruption issues in the local governments. Although the article primarily covers the element of ethics in governance, the authors have described in detail how corruption practices are undertaken in the local governments in Indonesia. Since the local governments set-ups do not vary widely, this information is useful when analyzing the corruption in many areas of local governments. However, the religious aspect integrated into the article may make some readers question the motives of the publication hence a limitation. In general, the article will be used as a supplementary information to help in investigating the corruption issues encountered in the local governments.

13. Henegan, M., & Williams, P. (1996). Planning in the twilight zone. Australian Planner, 31(1), 50-54.
When conducting the study, the authors discussed planning in the local governments from an Australian perspective. The authors utilized data derived from the different local governments in Australia and mapped out the corruption designs as advanced within the local governments. From the data gathered, the authors conclude that the bulk of corruption takes place at the planning levels and therefore prevention efforts should be directed towards the stage.
One of the features that make this article useful regards the language used. Under language, the authors have used vocabulary that can be understood by a wider audience. The second aspect that makes the article useful is that the authors use specific examples on how corruption takes place in the local governments and this helps to underpin the information provided in the literature review. On the weaker side, the article was published in 1996 and this implies that it is not recent hence the information may not be relevant to the current corrupt practices perpetuated in the local governments. Despite the fact that the article lacks recent information, it will form part of the supplementary sources because the information it contains are applicable in some areas of the topic under investigation. Besides, the methodology adopted by the authors while conducting the study is also critical when it comes to the study topic hence another reason for its use.

14. Holleran, M. (2014). ?Mafia Baroque?: post-socialist architecture and urban planning in Bulgaria. The British journal of sociology, 65(1), 21-42.
The author presents the changes that the construction industry has underwent, but the way the authors presents the changes is that it is argued as more of a professional marginalization, and also as an aspect that serves to create embarrassment for the people involved as well. Broader post socialist concerns are added to the understanding of corruption in urban planning through this article. The authors recommend that there be some forms of sufficient regulation when it comes to urban planning in order to handle the issues.
The author attempts to understand urban planning in Bulgaria and how it gets affected by issues in the form of the mafia baroque in the profession. Now this paper differs from that of the other research papers and also has some similarities. Mainly it differs in the reasoning given for the rise of corruption and also in the case of how the mafia baroque a social custom could have an impact on it. However, as authors argue the very nature of competition might not be emulated properly if the other aspects of competitive drive are not considered in context.
On the other hand, the author mainly concerns itself with the architectural style that has strong connections with the urban planning that is being conducted in Bulgaria. However, after the decline of those intellects that enjoyed the style there was a decline, as the style came to be sidelined as well.
15. Jim?nez, F., Villoria, M., & Quesada, M. G. (2012). Badly designed institutions, informal rules and perverse incentives: Local government corruption in Spain. Lex localis, 10(4), 363.
The author focuses on how badly designed institutions and a corrupted local government could result in practical issues of urban planning in the country. In the local regions, these plans are also executed with as much dexterity as possible and yet issues exist for the country. The authors arguments for urban planning to be corruption free is presented in the viewpoints of existing literatures and specific elements for their country as well. A low quality equilibrium persists in the local regions that serves as an issue for the country as well. There are many issues of planning related corruption in the private sector as argued by the authors, from the way procurement would be conducted, to the hiring issues for the people. Most of the researches on corruption in general do support the viewpoint of the authors, as they state corruption has resulted in the decrease in investment. The authors in presenting a literature review on the subject of corruption brings the issues to the forefront, the paper critically analyses the problem of corruption from the viewpoint of the rural and urban planning rules.
In the country, a more formal system of rules exists, but then the due process in town and urban planning reveals that despite the rules there is much corruption afoot. The authors unlike the previous scholarly defenses on corruption seem to state that it is the rules themselves that are flawed. Authors argue that with the flawed rules there would be issues for the town planner. The authors have seemingly adopted a Spanish case study. It is interesting that authors present a viewpoint on urban planning that actually seems to derive more from the informal rule making rather than from that of formal rules and systems.

16. Kim, S., Kim, H. J., & Lee, H. (2009). An institutional analysis of an e-government system for anti-corruption: The case of OPEN. Government Information Quarterly, 26(1), 42-50.
Information from local government councils and urban policy development centers in South Korea was utilized to explore the issues of corruption as they relate to planning systems in the local governments. The authors used the data from the various councils in South Korea to establish if the e-government system facilitates the anti-corruption efforts in the local government councils. The authors remark that e-government is one way that ensures consistent follow-up of contractual agreements or payments hence it helps to reduce corruption deals in the local governments.
The authors of the article have affiliations with the different higher learning institutions and research and development centers in South Korea. In addition, the authors have relevant academic backgrounds in the area of local government administrations and corruption. As such, the information has credibility and high level of authority. The article introduces a new insight into the local government corruption issue by highlighting the approach of e-governance where operations are data based. The authors have also adopted a methodological structure and founded the investigation on a relevant theoretical background. In general, this article embodies the features of a comprehensive research hence useful for the study. This article will be used as a core source of information as the authors underscore the importance of e-governance in urban planning practices and local governments systems.

17. Lee, M. (2008). Bureaus of efficiency: Reforming local government in the progressive era. Milwaukee, WI: Marquette University Press.
Bureaus of efficiencies origins are traceable to the US and represent the civic institutions that were formed to facilitate efficiencies in the local governments. Because the concept generated tangible outcomes to most of the cities, the concept has been adopted in other cities outside the US as well. The author discusses how the concept of bureaus of efficiency can be used to improve efficiencies in the local governments.
This book offers a detailed review of the bureaus of efficiencies and their applications in the local governments and urban planning becomes apparent. The author also uses examples and where applicable quotes other authors. This implies that the material is presented in a consultative manner. The book also describes the efforts that can be embraced to reduce corruption in the local governments. This article although is written in a subjective manner, the author manages to raise information that is useful to the topic of discussion and hence a useful source of information.

18. Martin, B. (2012). Corruption tactics: outrage management in a local government scandal. Resistance Studies Magazine, (February), 1-40
When conducting the study, the author obtained data from the local governments in Australia and developed the corruption designs as advanced within the local governments. From the data gathered, the author concludes that the bulk of corruption takes place at the planning levels and therefore, prevention efforts should be directed towards the stage.
The author has sound academic background in matters related to local governments and the article is published in reputable journal. This gives the information provided by the author authority. One of the features that make this article useful regards the language used. Under language, the author has used vocabulary that can be understood by different audiences. The second aspect that makes the article useful is that the author use specific examples on how corruption takes place in the local governments. This helps to underpin the information provided in the literature review. The article will form part of the primary sources because the information it contains are applicable in many areas of the topic under investigation. Besides, the methodology adopted by the author while conducting the study is also critical when it comes to the study topic hence another reason for its selection.

19. Masters, A. B., & Graycar, A. (2015). Making Corruption Disappear in Local Government. Public Integrity, 18(1), 42-58. doi:10.1080/10999922.2015.1093400
In this article, the authors investigated the opportunities for corruptions as well as the deterrents of corruption within the context of the local governments. Using the available survey data from Victoria area of Australia, the authors highlighted the key corruption scandals that occur in local governments. The authors conclude from the findings of the study that the lack of formal incentive structure coupled with the numerous expectations that are contrary to the common good are the key precipitators of corruption in the local government systems.
From an academic background point of view, the authors have received adequate trainings in criminal-related issues as well as social ills affecting governance in public service. The authors have tackled the issue of corruption in local governments from the viewpoint of criminal investigation officers and this approach offers critical regarding the role of legal system the authors have embraced a logical approach to the discussion and this leads to sound in curbing corruption at the local government levels. Throughout the article, conclusions from the findings. The article is also published recently which means it brings new and comprehensive information connected to corruption in local governments. The article is not only well researched but also includes pragmatic suggestions that can be used to prevent corruptions in the local governments. These features readily qualify the article as one of the important ones to be used for the research.

20. Maor, M. (2004), ?Feeling the heat? Anticorruption mechanisms in comparative perspective?, Governance: An International Journal of Policy, Administration and Institutions, 17(11) 1-28
This article analyzes the distinct mechanisms adopted in various administration levels to prevent corruption and evaluates the impacts of such mechanisms to determine their efficacies. The author reviews data on governments, local governments, institutions such as schools and hospitals among others. Based on the results, the author lists the anticorruption mechanisms that have been successful and the ones that have been unsuccessful. The results of the study indicate that the levels of corruptions are dependence on the efficiency of the systems put in place to avert the corruptions.
The primary strength of this article entails the comparative approach used regarding the anticorruption practices used in governance in general. Through this approach, readers are able to discern the approaches that can be used to prevent corruption deals in administration. The author has also reviewed several past studies, which gives the article meaning. However, a slight limitation of the article is that it is general and not specific to the local governance and urban planning systems.This article covers anticorruption practices at the different administration levels of governances including the local governments. As such, the article will be used to supplement the information from other sources used to undertake the study.

21. Michello, J. (2005). Urban sociology. Dubuque, IA: Kendal/Hunt.
This book talks about the sociology of urban centers in general. In this regard, the author highlights the various issues of urban planning such as financing, contracting, and budgeting and corruption related to them. The author observes that urban sociology has changed with times and there is need for improved ethical environments for the local governments governing urban centers to be effective.
The benefit of this book concerns the observation that tackles the issues of urban planning systems in relation to the sociology of the urban centers and the environments that surround them. The author has also followed a systematic approach while writing the book and this makes it relevant for the discussion topic. This book is comprehensive in nature and provides a new perspective to the topic and thus will be used for investigating the topic in depth.

22. Plibersek, R., & Mills, A. (2010). Is monitoring implementation the key to preventing repeated workplace corruption? CJLG Commonwealth Journal of Local Governance, 0(7). doi:10.5130/cjlg.v0i7.1910
This article analyzes the distinct mechanisms adopted in various administration levels to prevent corruption and evaluates whether the implementation of the mechanisms hold key to preventing corruption. The authors review data on governments, local governments, institutions such as schools and hospitals among others. Based on the results, the authors list the anticorruption mechanisms that have been successful and the ones that have been unsuccessful. The results of the study indicate that the levels of corruptions are dependence on the efficiency of the systems put in place to avert the corruptions hence the monitoring of the implementation is vital.
The primary strength of this article entails the comparative approach used regarding the anticorruption practices used in local governance in general. Through this approach, readers are able to discern the approaches that can be used to prevent corruption deals. The authors have also reviewed several past studies, which gives the article meaning. However, a slight limitation of the article is that it is general and not specific to the local governance and urban planning systems. This article covers anticorruption practices at the different administration levels of governances including the local governments. As such, the article will be used to supplement the information from other sources used to undertake the study.

23. Pinch, P. L. (1995). Governing urban finance: Changing budgetary strategies in British local government. Environ. Plann. A Environment and Planning A, 27(6), 965-983. doi:10.1068/a270965
In this article, the author provides an overview of the budgetary strategies used in the British local government from a historical perspective. The author reviews the budgetary approaches used in the local governments and the gaps that allow for corruption while undertaking the development projects in the urban centers. The author contends that new efficient strategies should be used as a way of eliminating corruption in the local governments.
This article touches the principal element of financing in the local governments which is also a key sector riddled with corruption. Therefore, it is critical to the topic of investigation. On the flipside, the article is not recent hence some information may have been overtaken with events. Although, the information may not be recent, the article will still form a valuable source to help understand the topic.

24. Purcell, A. J. (2014). Corruption and misconduct: A behavioral reflection from investigative reports into local government. Journal of Business Systems, Governance & Ethics JBSGE, 9(1). doi:10.15209/jbsge.v9i1.610
The purpose of this article was to provide the bigger picture of how corruption misconducts are undertaken in the local governments. To realize this objective, the author explored different data from the local governments in Australia. The author concluded that corruption in the local governments is mediated by inefficient planning systems and the lack of ethical frameworks to oversee the operations in the local governments. The article is also published in a recognized international journal and this implies that the information has sufficient authority to be used in the research.
The author has adopted a reflective approach to the study by integrating personal views with the findings of research on the issue of corruption in the local governments. The language used is also clear and the author makes suggestion as to how corruption can be addressed in the local governments. This article is recent and contains information that are related to the topic of investigation hence will be used to investigate the topic of the study.

25. Purcell, A. J. (2016). Australian local government corruption and misconduct. Journal of Financial Crime, 23(1), 102-118. doi:10.1108/jfc-10-2013-0060
The author of the article is a recognized scholar that has affiliations with different research centers and higher learning institutions in Australia. Moreover, the author has published articles and books on the local governance and these offers authority to the information in the article in question. In this article, the author describes corruption practices in the local governments in Australia from the perspective of financial misappropriations. The author gathered data of corruption scandals in the local governments of Australia and traced them to their potential sources. From the outcomes of the analysis, the author observed that most financial crimes are perpetrated on the backgrounds of inefficient planning systems.
As research article, the author has included the elements of a scholarly material. From the abstract to the conclusions, the information is readily discernible. The author has also reviewed past studies done in the area of corruption concerning financial handlings in the systems. This article illuminates the significance of effective systems as a way of eliminating corruptions in the local governments. As a recent article and one that is scholarly, this article will be instrumental in discussing the issues of corruption that takes place in the local governments.

26. Roberts, R. (2012). The Supreme Court and Federal Prosecution of State and Local Government Corruption. Public Integrity, 14(4), 399-412. doi:10.2753/pin1099-9922140405
Roberts is a professional with academic background in sociology criminal. He is also a research fellow associated with the US Center of Integrity and has written different articles in public governance. He reviews corruption scandals in the US local governments and evaluates the efficacy of the legal system in preventing corruption at the state and local government levels. The author describes mandates of the Supreme Court in preventing corruption and assesses the application of the roles at the local government systems. From the research, the author affirms that the decentralized nature of the local governments require a decentralized justice system to prevent the corruption practices at the local levels.
The author has adopted legal viewpoint to the issue of corruption and therefore, he manages to bring about another side of corruption as encountered in governance. The article is also written in clear and concise manner. The limitation connected to the article is that it also touches on state governments. While the article talks about corruption at the local and state governments, the author raises valuable points germane to the topic of discussion and thus will be used as a source of supplementary information.

27. Ruhil, A. Mark, S., Paul,T., & Byung-Moon, J. (1999). Institutions and Reform: Reinventing Local Government. Urban Affairs Review34 (3):433-455.
In this article, the authors are recognized scholars and researchers and have affiliations with higher learning institutions and research centers in the US. In this sense, the information provided by the scholars has substantial authority. They expatiate how corruption takes place in the local government systems in the US. The authors highlight the loopholes exploited by corrupt officials when handling local government operations. The authors conclude that the auditing systems used by the local government are inefficient and mediates the corruption practices to take place.
One of the strengths of the article concerns the enumeration of the different corrupt schemes used by local government officials when conducting local government duties. The authors also probe the corruption cases in the US from wider perspectives hence this represents another strength. A possible weakness of the article is that it does not highlight the limitations associated with the review. This article will also be used in the research given that the information is material to the topic study and that the authors discuss the issue of corruption in depth.

28. Seumas, M., Peter, R. & Edward, S. (2005). Corruption and anti-corruption: an applied philosophical approach. In Corruption: a conceptual analysis (pp. 1-21). Upper Saddle River, N.J. : Pearson/Prentice Hall.
The authors of the book all have academic backgrounds in the areas of administrations. The authors have also written articles about corruption and anticorruption in different levels of governances. This book talks about corruption and anticorruption practices using a conceptual- philosophical approach. The authors describe the origins of corruption and how corruption has metamorphosed over the years. In addition, the authors also offer reasons as to why individuals participate in the corrupt scandals. The authors of the book make conclusions that corruption can be addressed with ethical foundations and having efficient systems.
The authors of the book have adopted a philosophical viewpoint to the issue of corruption and therefore, they manage to bring about another side of corruption as encountered in governance. The book is also written in clear and concise manner despite the philosophical approach which means that the information is presented in an articulate manner. The limitation connected to the book is that it is general. While the book is general as far as corruption and anti-corruption are concerned, the book still raises valuable points germane to the topic of discussion and thus will be used as a source of information.

29. Ruming, K., & Gurran, N. (2014). Australian planning system reform. Australian Planner, 51(2), 102-107.
Ruming and Gurran discuss the reforms in the planning system of the Australian local governments. The authors name the different reforms that have been introduced in the Australian planning system. Using the previous data on past corruption cases in the local governments, the authors try to estimate the chances of the proposed recommendations being successful in future. From the outcomes of the research, the authors list the possible solutions with the highest results when curbing corruption in the local governments.
The article is written by individuals who have sufficient knowledge in the various aspects of urban planning in the Australian system. Furthermore, the academic backgrounds of the two researchers is also relevant to the area of the urban planning. This article is mainly focused on the reforms undertaken in the Australian urban system. Nonetheless, it raises the ways of tackling corruption which makes it useful for the research purposes. Although the article is centered on reforms, it will be a useful as a supplementary source of information because it contains information that are applicable to the research area to be investigated.
30. Shim, D. C & Eom. T. H. (2009), ?Anti-corruption effects of information communication technology (ICT) and social capital?, International Review of Administrative Sciences, 75(1), 99-116.
The work of Shin & Eom (2008) highlight the necessity for there to be focus on planning which encompasses three different aspects. These three aspects are the different levels of corruption. The first of this aspect is that of the bureaucratic professionalism that exists in the work and quality, the second is that of the bureaucratic quality that is involved and the third is that of the law enforcement that is possible with the given set of data on corruption. Where most existing research on the topic presents the issues of corruption in a much more theoretical sense, the work of Shin & Eom (2008) presents for the variables in a much more practical use sense.
The article argues that in this case, it is possible to implement regulation framework in the form of ICT uses. ICT use would greatly reduce how the traditional form of governance and planning in urban or other major projects would be corrupted. ICT makes the work of these agencies and these aspects as having better potential to monitor corrupt behavior and this impact is also seen to improve the overall social capital as well. Now social capital, social aspects and the social impact of corruption remain a critical point in the previous research and authors are able to analyzed different sets of data to identify how ICT could indeed be very effective in implementing anti-corruption. Now in the context of planning projects, there would be much more transparency introduced, a form of feedbacks, or even trace to understand how the project movement can be tracked right from the design and planning stage also adds better credibility to the projects.

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