Describe principles in bell-lapadula and biba security model
Foundations of Information Security Exam
Part 1: Very Short Answers
1. T F Biometrics authentication systems can be subject to the following attacks: Replay, spoofing and false matching attacks. Answer: ____
2. __________ is/are the foundation of most access controls to ensure CIA (Select one).
a. Confidentiality and integrity
b. Authentication validating one’s claimed identity
c. Monitoring and auditing
d. System isolation
3. T F A hash algorithm uses a one-way cryptographic function, whereas both secret-key and public-key systems use two-way (i.e., reversible) cryptographic functions. Answer: ____
4. T F 3DES (Triple DES) requires the use of three independent keys. Answer: _____
5. T F AES uses the Rijndael algorithm. Answer: _____
6. T F Encrypting a message with the sender’s private key ensures proof of receipt of a message. Answer: _____
7. T F Two purpose of using a salt value in storing (hashed) passwords is to prevent password duplication and thwart guessing whether a user has the same password on multiple systems. Answer: _____
8. T F In Role-Based Access Control Systems, a user is assigned no more than one role to limit the damage a user can do.Answer: _____
9. If person A uses AES to transmit an encrypted message to person B, which key or keys will A have to use:
a. A’s private key
b. A’s public key
c. B’s private key
d. B’s public key
e. None of the keys listed above
10. Which one of the following is not a goal of cryptographic systems?
Part 2: Short Answers. Please answer briefly and completely, and cite all sources of information. Please restrict your answer for each question to three fourth (3/4) of a page (double spaced) or less.
1. Explain multi-factor (multiple means of) authentication of a user and give two examples for each authentication factor.
2. Describe the fundamental principles in both the Bell-LaPadula and Biba security models. For each, explain what sort of security the model is intended to provide, the two key properties of the model, and then explain in your own words why each of the properties makes sense from a security standpoint.
3. Define the principle of defense in depth. Give two examples of how the principle might be applied: one describing security measures across multiple layers of security architecture, and another describing security measures within a single layer.
4. Alan and Beatrice are both users of PKI. Explain how they use their keys to communicate when Alan sends a private message to Beatrice, and provides proof that he sent the message.
5. Compare and contrast Mandatory Access Control and Discretionary Access Control. How well are they supported in various well-known (common) operating systems?
Part 3: Short Essay. Please restrict your answer to three pages (double spaced) or less.
Global Corporation, Inc. (GCI) is a fictional multi-national company providing outsourced financial services to a variety of clients across many industries, including commercial and government entities. GCI specializes in billing and invoicing services, in which GCI receives relevant data from its clients and stores the data in a central database server and processes the data to produce the invoices, monthly statements, and other billing items that are sent to GCI’s clients’ customers. GCI employees serve the company’s customers both on-site at customer locations and while working in GCI facilities. GCI employees routinely store data related to multiple clients on their company-issued laptops and flash drives.
GCI’s Chief Information Officer, having read of the numerous data breaches reported among commercial and government organizations, has become concerned about the risk to GCI’s customers and potentially the company’s reputation if GCI were to experience a similar breach. She has tasked you, the Director of Information Security, to create a new corporate policy regarding the protection of client and company confidential data stored on employee computers, particularly laptops and flash drives. Respond to each of the following, taking into account material we have studied in this course regarding threats and vulnerabilities, as well as Stallings and Brown (Chapter 14.2) discussion of the characteristics of effective security policies. Cite these and other pertinent sources used in your answer. Be specific but fully explain and give reasons for your answers.
1. Summarize the primary vulnerabilities and potential threats that exist for GCI related to the practice of storing sensitive data on laptops. In your opinion, which of the risks GCI faces are most significant to the company?
2. What measures would you propose to senior management to try to prevent a breach of data held by GCI? Your response should include recommendations for mitigating vulnerabilities identified in part (a).
3. Write a succinct policy statement specifying employee and company responsibilities for protecting client and corporate data, such as the data stored on employee laptops and flash drive. Be sure to address requirements for protecting the data from theft, and for rendering the data unusable should it be compromised. In your Policy, focus on these items:
• Scope and purpose including business, legal, regulatory requirements
• Security requirements (Confidentiality and integrity of customer and enterprise data, availability, authentication and authorization and auditing requirements if any)
• Assignment of responsibilities
• Security awareness and training
• Any legal sanctions/penalty for non-compliance by employees
• How and when policy reviewed and updated
• Timeframe for implementation of security requirements