different purposes  Knowing how to determine purpose is important reading skill  Imaginative literature purpose is to entertain  Imaginative literature involves different genres  Imaginative literature involves varying themes Genres in literature:  Nonfiction  Based on truth  Narrative nonfiction  Essays  Biographies  Autobiographies  Speech  General nonfiction

Writers write for different purposes  Knowing how to determine purpose is important reading skill  Imaginative literature purpose is to entertain  Imaginative literature involves different genres  Imaginative literature involves varying themes

Genres in literature:  Nonfiction  Based on truth  Narrative nonfiction  Essays  Biographies  Autobiographies  Speech  General nonfiction

Genres in literature:  Fiction  Drama  Poetry  Epic poetry  Novel and Novella  Short story  Mythology  Others  Horror, legends, tall tales, mystery, sci-fi, etc.

Theme is  Main idea (not the plot!)  Think of it as the underlying central idea  Can be specific to reading passage OR  Universal  Good versus evil  Human versus nature  Family love  Loyalty

Autobiography: nonfiction that an author writes about his or her own life  Ballad: a song that tells a story, often with a tragic ending  Biography: nonfiction written about a person’s life  Comedy: a play written to entertain or amuse, usually with a happy ending  Dramatic monologue: the speech of one person alone in a dramatic work  Epic: a long poem that tells a heroic story  Essay: a composition about a certain topic, usually expressive of the author’s feelings or opinions

Terms & Definitions Cont.  Lyric verse: poetry intended mainly to tell a story  Narrative verse: poetry intended mainly to tell a story  Novel: a book-length work of narrative fiction  Novella: a long short story  Poem: writing in verse that may be rhymed or have a certain number of syllables per line  Short story: a short work of fiction  Sonnet: a poem of 14 lines, usually with a specific rhythmic pattern and rhyme scheme  Tragedy: a play that ends in sorrow for the hero or heroine

Helpful questions  When distinguishing between different literary genres, it’s helpful to think of these questions:  What is the form of this work of literature?  What is probably the purpose of this writing?  What does the author want the reader to think or feel?  How do the different characteristics of this form of writing support the author’s purpose?

Read “Moby Dick” Excerpt

Which of the following best describes the writing in this excerpt?  A. plot  B. dialogue  C. character  D. description

excerpt?  A. to convey the excitement and danger of a whale hunt  B. to show that the author is sympathetic toward the whale  C. to emphasize the smallness of men in the vastness of the sea  D. to suggest that goals are accomplished only through strenuous effort

Read “Save the Whales – Again!”

This selection is best described as  A. an essay.  B. an editorial.  C. a scientific article.  D. a public document.

Compare and contrast how the topic of whale hunting is presented across the two selections. Explain in each case how the genre shapes the author’s presentation of the topic.

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