Dos and ddos attack


(a)(i) Differentiate between Denial of Service attack (DoS) and Distributed Denial of service (DDoS) attack.

(ii) Give one instance of a DoS attacks and one example of a DDoS attack.

(iii) Talk about two motivations for causing a DDoS attack.

(b)Evaluate and contrast Phishing and Pharming attacks. Which of these attacks is likely going to be more fruitful for the attacker? Give details why.

(c)What poses a bigger risk to an organization: External attacks or Insider attacks? give good reason for your statement.


(a)Discriminate between a one-factor and a two-factor authentication system of a user. Which one is more secure?

(b)It is strongly recommended to implement “password ageing” for password systems. Make clear “password ageing”. How does it augment security?

(c)(i) How is dictionary attacks made not easy against Unix systems?

(ii) Is dictionary attack theoretically impossible when made difficult? validate your answer.

(iii) Which file is instrumental in preventing dictionary attack altogether?

(d)Which type of biometric device is considered to be the most secure: fingerprint scan or retina scan?

(e)Converse the problems of using a smart card for authentication.


(a)What kind of cryptographic attack made Double DES (2DES) not secure?

(b)What is the major hurdle preventing the widespread adoption of one-time pad cryptosystems to ensure data confidentiality?

(c)Which Data Encryption Standard (DES) operating modes can be used for large memos without the worry that an error early in the encryption/decryption process will spoil results throughout the communication? Clarify your answer.

(d)What is the major benefit of symmetric encryption?

(e)Confer three drawbacks of symmetric encryption.

(f)(i) Name the current symmetric encryption standard algorithm.

(ii) Will this algorithm still be the standard in 40 years?

(g)Give an instance of a digital certificate format.

(h)Presuppose a public key cryptosystem is being used.

(i) Richard wants to send Sue a message such that only Sue can read the message. Which key should he use to encrypt the message digest?

(ii) Richard would like to digitally sign a message he’s sending to Sue so that Sue can be sure the message came from him. Which key should he use to produce the digital signature?


(a)Which port number is associated with https?

(b)Briefly portray the four SSL protocols.

(c)(i) SSL requires the exchange of a pre-master secret. How is the pre-master secret exchanged amid the client and server securely?

(ii) What is the importance of the pre-master secret shared during handshaking?

(d)Why should a Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) be used on a network?

(e)Describe how the application level proxy firewall is more secure than the packet filter firewall.

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