Educational Innovation and Change

Educational Innovation and ChangeThis brief guide is primarily for students doing assignments at Curtin University, not for those publishing using the APA 6th style.
If you are publishing in the APA 6th style, please consult the APA publication manual:
American Psychological Association. (2009). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
If you require extra help not available in this guide please try
? APA style guide to electronic references
? APA Style Blog
Guide contents
Overview:
? What is referencing?
? Why reference?
? Steps involved in referencing
? Elements of a reference
? Sample reference list
? Reference types for EndNote X7
Reference Examples:
? Books and eBooks
? Journals (Print and Online)
? World Wide Web
? Government Publications
? Other Sources
? Authors Citing Other Authors
It is important that you check the assignment guide of your Department or School as details may vary from the guidelines on this sheet. You may be penalised for not using the referencing style that is required by your School/Department.
Academic integrity and plagiarism
Plagiarism breaches academic integrity and is a serious accusation in academia. Make sure you
avoid plagiarism by referencing your sources.
Refer to the Curtin University student booklet Academic Integrity: Student Guidelines for Avoiding Plagiarism for definitions and University policies relating to academic integrity and plagiarism.
CURTIN UNIVERSITY LIBRARY
APA 6th REFERENCING
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What is Referencing?
Referencing is a standardised method of acknowledging sources of information and ideas that you have used in your assignment in a way that uniquely identifies their source. Direct quotations, facts and figures, as well as ideas and theories, from both published and unpublished works, must be referenced.
Why Reference?
Referencing is necessary to avoid plagiarism, to verify quotations, and to enable readers to follow-up and read more fully the cited author’s arguments.
Steps Involved in Referencing
1. Collecting Bibliographic Details
Note down the full bibliographic details of the source from which the information is taken, including the relevant page number(s). This information is the basis of a citation or reference.
In the case of a book, ‘bibliographical details’ refers to: author/editor, year of publication, title, edition, volume number, place of publication and publisher as found on the front and back of the title page. (Not all of these details will necessarily be applicable).
In the case of a journal article the details required include: author of the article, year of publication, title of the article, title of the journal, volume and issue number of the journal, and page numbers.
For all electronic information, in addition to the above you should note the DOI (Digital Object Identifier) if one exists, and if one does not exist, the web address (URL) of the database you found the article in. For more details see the DOI Information Sheet.
2. In-Text Citations
A citation inserted at the appropriate place within the text of the document is called an in-text citation. This usually takes the form of the name of the author, followed by the year of publication.
Two acceptable forms of in-text citations are:
Miller and Collins (2009) – use and when family names are outside parentheses (Miller & Collins, 2009) – use & when family names are inside parentheses
If two or more authors are cited at the same point in the text then they are included in the same in-text citation, separated by a semicolon, e.g., (Brown, 1991; Smith, 2003).
Short quotes
For fewer that 40 words incorporate the quote into the text and use double quotation marks.
“………………………….” (Brown & Brown, 2008, p.112).
Brown and Brown (2008) suggested “……………………………” (p. 112), and this would provide…
When paraphrasing, the APA 6th manual (p.171) encourages you to provide page or paragraph numbers to help the reader locate the information.
Use paragraph number for .html documents (e.g. British Empire 1922, 2009, para.4)
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Page Numbers
Use p. for a single page and pp. for double pages.
Long Quotes
If the quotation is 40 or more words use a freestanding block of text
? start on a new line
? indent the block about half an inch from the left
? use double spacing
? omit quotations marks
3. Reference List
A reference list includes books, journal articles etc that you have cited in the text of your essay whereas a bibliography is a list of sources consulted as well as cited.
? The reference should appear at the end of your work on a separate page
? The reference list is arranged alphabetically by author
? Where an item has no author it is cited and listed by its title
? The second and subsequent lines of each reference need a hanging indent
? Use double spacing between references
Example of a Reference List in the APA style
Reference Types to use with EndNote
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Elements of a Reference
A reference or citation consists of elements that allow the reader to trace the original book, article or website you have consulted and cited.
Underlined hyperlink in URL
This can be removed if required. APA has no rule regarding the inclusion of a hyperlink and they provide no guidance. This is at the discretion of the respective lecturers. For more information see the APA Style Blog FAQ
Book title
Mack, C. (2005). Looking at the Renaissance: Essays toward a conceptual appreciation. London, UK: Taylor & Francis.
Author
(Year)
Place of publication
Publisher
Book:
Pope, J., & Owen A. D. (2009). Emission trading schemes: Potential revenue effects, compliance costs and overall tax policy issues. Energy Policy, 37, 4595-4603. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2009.06.014
Journal article from a database:
DOI
Journal title
Volume number
Web Page:
Article page numbers
Steel, W. (2008). Hints for web authors. Retrieved from http://www.mcsr.olemiss.edu/~mudws/webhints.html
Author
(Year)
Title
URL of the web page
Title of the journal article
Author
(Year)
Reference Types to use with EndNote
For Reference Types to use with EndNote, click here for the EndNote X5 LibGuide
For Reference Types to use with EndNote, click here for the EndNote X5 LibGuide
For Reference Types to use with EndNote, click here for the EndNote X5 LibGuide
Page 5 of 14
Books (Print & Online) In-Text Example Reference List Examples
Single author
The theory was first considered in 2000 (Pash, 2008)
OR
Pash (2008) claimed that…
Pash, C. (2008). The last whale. North Fremantle, WA: Fremantle Press.
2 authors
Roitman and LaFontaine (2012) …
OR
“… to achieve consistency” (Roitman & LaFontaine, 2012, p. 45)
Roitman, J. L., & LaFontaine, T. P. (2012). The exercise professional’s guide to optimizing
health: Strategies for preventing and reducing chromic disease. Philadelphia, PA:
Wolters Kluwer Health.
3,4,5 authors
Conking, Alley, Broecker, and Denton (2011)
Cite all authors the first time the reference occurs.
In subsequent citations, include only the surname of the first author followed by et al.
Conking et al. (2011) suggested that …
OR
(Conking et al., 2011)
Conking, P. W., Alley, R. B., Broecker, W. S., & Denton, G. H. (2011). The fate of Greenland: Lessons from abrupt climate change. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
6,7 authors
Bulliet et al. (2011) found that…
OR
(Bulliet et al., 2011)
Cite only the surname of the first author followed by et al.
Bulliet, R. W., Crossley, P. K., Headrick, D. R., Hirsch, S. W., Johnson, L. L., & Northrup, D. (2011). The earth and its peoples: A global history (5th ed.). Boston, MA: Wadsworth.
8 or more authors
(Gradel et al., 2007, p. 35)
OR
Gradel et al. (2007, p. 35) stated…
Cite only the surname of the first author followed by et al.
Gradel, E., Kolaitis, P. G., Libkin, L., Marx, M., Spencer, J., Vardi, M. Y., … Weinstein, S.
(2007). Finite model theory and its applications. Berlin, Germany: Springer.
For works with 8 or more authors, list the first 6 authors, followed by 3 full stops (…) then the last author’s name.
No author
(Employment the professional way, 2000)
OR
the book Employment the professional way (2000)
Shorten title
Employment the professional way: A guide to understanding the Australian job search process for professionally qualified migrants. (2000). Carlton, Vic: Australian
Multicultural Foundation.
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Books (Print & Online) In-Text Example Reference List Examples
Multiple works by same author
University research (Martin, 2008, 2010) has indicated that…
Martin, G. (2008). Essentials of terrorism: Concepts and controversies. Los Angeles, CA: Sage
Publications.
Martin, G. (2010). Understanding terrorism: Challenges, perspectives, and issues. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Order chronologically in the reference list.
Multiple works published in the same year by the same author
In recent reports (Napier, 1993a, 1993b)…
Use a/b etc. to differentiate between works in same year.
Napier, A. (1993a). Fatal storm. Sydney, NSW: Allen & Unwin.
Napier, A. (1993b). Survival at sea. Sydney, NSW: Allen & Unwin.
Order alphabetically by title in the reference list.
Works by different authors with same surname
(L. Green, 2010) OR L. Green (2010)
(R. Green, 2008) OR R. Green (2008)
Green, L. (2010). The internet: An introduction to new media. New York, NY: Berg.
Green, R. (2008). Global warming. Ann Arbor, MI: Cherry Lake Publishing.
Editor
(Kasdorf, 2003, p. 15)
Kasdorf, W. E. (Ed.). (2003). The Columbia guide to digital publishing. New York, NY:
Columbia University Press.
Different Editions
(Renton, 2004, p. 51)
OR
(Merriam-Webster’s collegiate dictionary, 2005)
Renton, N. (2004). Compendium of good writing (3rd ed.). Milton Keynes, UK: John Wiley & Sons.
OR
Merriam-Webster’s collegiate dictionary (11th ed.). (2005). Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster.
An edition number is placed after the title of the work – this is not necessary for a first edition.
Encyclopedia or
Dictionary or multi-volume work
The new Grove dictionary of music and musicians (1980, p.85) defined it as…
Sadie, S. (Ed.). (1980). The new Grove dictionary of music and musicians (6th ed., Vols. 1-20). London, UK: Macmillan.
Article or chapter in a book
As discussed by Friedl (2003)…
Friedl, E. (2003). Society and sex roles. In J. P. Spradley & D. W. McCurdy (Eds.), Conformity and conflict: Readings in cultural anthropology (11th ed., pp. 261-289). Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
Article or chapter in a book – no author
(“Solving the Y2K Problem,” 1997)
Put title in quotation marks.
Solving the Y2K problem. (1997). In D. Bowd (Ed.), Technology today and tomorrow (p. 27). New York, NY:
Van Nostrand Reinhold.
Image in a book
The poster “The 3 dark years” (Sexton, 2005, p. 184)
Sexton, M. (2005). The great crash: The short life and sudden death of the Whitlam government. Melbourne, Vic: Scribe Publications.
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Books (Print & Online) In-Text Example Reference List Example
Book review
(Robbins, 2010)
Robbins, M. (2011). Conservation biology [Review of the book The American bird conservancy guide to bird conservation, by D. J. Lebbin, M. J. Parr & G. H. Fenwick]. The Quarterly Review of Biology, 86(4) 343-344. http:dx.doi.org/10.1086/662504
Electronic book
(eBook)
(Apolloni, Pedrycz, Bassis & Malchiodi, 2008, p. 130)
Apolloni, B., Pedrycz, W., Bassis, S., & Malchiodi, D. (2008). The puzzle of granular computing.
Retrieved from http://www.springerlink.com.dbgw.lis.curtin.edu.au/content/g6u77ux5v746/ #section=246151&page=1
Supply DOI where available, or URL (shorten URL) in the absence of DOI.
Chapter in eBook
(Andrzej, Michael, & Philip, 2011)
Andrzej, G., Michael, B., & Philip, C. (2011). High performance computing clouds. In B. Benatallah (Ed.), Cloud computing methodology, systems, and applications (pp. 221-259). http://dx.doi.org/:doi:10.1201/b11149-14
Thesis or Dissertation—unpublished
(Ciccarelli, 2008, p. 89)
Ciccarelli, M. L. (2008). Variation of posture and muscle activity during information and communication technology use by adults and school children. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Curtin
University of Technology, Bentley, W.A.
Thesis or Dissertation—published available from an institutional database
(Dwyer, 2009, p. 152)
Dwyer, R. (2009). Agency and exchange: An ethnography of heroin marketplace. (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from http://espace.library.curtin.edu.au
Shorten URL Journals (Print & Online) In-Text Example Reference List Example
Article
(Print)
As mentioned by Morberg, Lagerstrom, and Dellve (2009)…
OR
“… the head school nurse’s job” (Morberg, Lagerstrom, & Dellve,
2009, p. 813)
Morberg, S., Lagerstrom, M., & Dellve, L. (2009). The perceived perceptions of head school nurses in developing school nursing roles within schools. Journal of Nursing Management, 17, 813-821.
Where the page numbers in the entire volume run consecutively, do not use issue number after the volume number.
Article – no author
(Print)
(“New Baltic Icebreakers,” 2005)
Use a short title with capitalisation and enclosed in quotation marks.
New Baltic icebreakers under construction at Baltiyski Zavod. (2005). Naval Architect, (July/August), 32-34.
Newspaper article
(Wilson, 2009)
(Seelye, 2010)
Wilson, A. (2009, November 26). BHP Billiton cautious on pace of global economic growth. The Australian, p. 3.
If electronic, give the URL of the newspaper homepage.
Seelye, K.Q. (2012, December 3). Spate of harsh weather in New England shifts sentiment on trees. The New
York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com
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Journals (Print & Online) In-Text Example Reference List Example
Newspaper article – no author
(“Ingenuity and Hard Work,” 2009)
Use a short title with capitalisation and enclosed in quotation marks.
Ingenuity and hard work – 20 years of internet in Australia. (2009, November 26). Sydney Morning Herald, p. 35.
If electronic, give the URL of the newspaper homepage. Use Retrieved from followed by URL.
Press release
(Watersmith, 2000)
(American Psychological Association, 2010 )
Watersmith, C. (2000, March 1). BHP enters new era [Press release]. Melbourne, Vic: BHP Limited.
American Psychological Association. (2010, August 15). Today’s superheroes send wrong image to boys,
say researchers [Press release]. Retrieved from
http://www.apa.org/news/press/releases/2010/08/macho- stereotype-unhealthy.aspx
Full text journal from an electronic database – DOI available
(Pope & Owen, 2009)
OR
As Pope and Owen (2009) state…
Pope, J., & Owen, A. D. (2009). Emission trading schemes: Potential revenue effects, compliance costs and overall tax policy issues. Energy Policy, 37, 4595-4603. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2009.06.014
Where the page numbers in the entire volume run consecutively, do not use issue number after the volume number. Do not include the name of the database. Use Retrieved from followed by URL if no DOI
Full text journal from an electronic database – DOI not available
(Marshall & Anderson, 2008, p.464)
OR
As Marshall and Anderson (2008, p.464) state…
If the article is in .pdf format, cite the page number. If it is in .html format, cite the paragraph number.
Marshall, K., & Anderson, J. (2008). The Emperor’s new clothes: A meta-study of education technology
policies in Ireland, North and South (1996-2006). Computers & Education, 50(2), 463-474. Retrieved from
http://www.sciencedirect.com
APA recommends using the journal homepage. However, for practical reasons the University has adopted the gateway URL as this will be easier for students. Shorten URL.
Include the issue number if the journal is paginated by issue.
Full text journal from an electronic database – no author
The Internet has had a huge impact on the Australian economy (“Mobile Phone Addiction,” 2010)…
Put title in quotation marks.
Mobile phone addiction: A point of issue. (2010). Addiction, 105, 373-374. Retrieved from http://proquest.umi.com
Where the page numbers in the entire volume run consecutively, do not use issue number after the volume number. Shorten URL. Use Retrieved from followed by URL if no DOI.
Full text newspaper, newswire or
magazine from an electronic
database – no
author
(“Call to Save Indigenous Languages,” 2009)
Put title in quotation marks. Shorten title if necessary.
Call to save indigenous languages. (2009, October 31). The Canberra Times. Retrieved from
http://global.factiva.com
Shorten URL
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Journals (Print & Online) In-Text Example Reference List Example
Full text from Internet – more than 7 authors
Keogh et al., 2009, p.256)
If an article is in .pdf format, cite the page number. If it is in .html format, cite the paragraph number.
Keogh, L. A., van Vliet, C. M., Studdert, D. M., Maskiell, J. A., Macrae, F. A., St John, D. J., … Jenkins, M. A. (2009). Is the uptake of genetic testing for colorectal cancer influenced by knowledge of insurance implications? Medical Journal of Australia, 191(5), 255-258. Retrieved from http://www.mja.com.au/ public/issues/191_05_070909/keo11470_fm.pdf
For works with more than 7 authors, list the first 6 authors, followed by 3 fullstops (…) then spell out the last author’s name. For other author variations refer to page 5.
In-press article
(Briscoe, in press)
Briscoe, R. (in press). Egocentric spatial representation in action and perception. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research. Retrieved from http://cogprints.org/57801/ECSRAP.F07.pdf
Abstract as original source
(Giglia, 2012)
Use if full text is not available
Giglia, R.C. (2012). Alcohol consumption for breastfeeding women: Where to for policy makers? Current Pediatric Reviews, 8(4), 299-303. Abstract retrieved from http://www.scopus.com.dbgw.lis.curtin.edu.au
Use if full text is not available
Article from Curtin
E-Reserve
(Flahvin, 1997, p.12)
Flahvin, A. (1997). Sattin and the spectre of media liability for negligence. Communications Law
Bulletin, 16(4), 11-14. Retrieved from http://edocs.library.curtin.edu.au/eres_display.cgi? url=dc60209184.pdf
Systematic Reviews
(Leach & Morris, 2006)
Leach, A. J., & Morris, P. S. (2006). Antibiotics for the prevention of acute and chronic suppurative otitis media in children. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2006(4), 1-92.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD004401.pub2
World Wide Web In-Text Example Reference List Examples
Document on
WWW
(Steel, 2008 )
Steel, W. (2008). Hints for web authors. Retrieved from http://www.mcsr.olemiss.edu/~mudws/webhints.html
Document on
WWW – No
author
(“British Empire 1922,” 2009, para.4)
Use paragraph numbers for html documents.
British Empire 1922 and other empires. (2009). Retrieved from http://www.angelfire.com/mac/egmatthews/worldinfo/europe/empire.html
Document on
WWW – No date
(Royal Institute of British Architects, n.d.)
Royal Institute of British Architects. (n.d.). Becoming an architect. Retrieved from
http://www.architecture.com/EducationAndCareersBecomingAnArchitectBecominganarchitect.aspx
Page 10 of 14
World Wide Web In-Text Example Reference List Examples
Entire Website not specific document
Give the URLof the site in the text:
Kidspsych (http://www.kidspsych.org) is a children’s website.
No entry required in the reference list
Blog post
Blog post reply
McDonald (2010) suggests that…
(the smart one, 2010)
Use the screen name for the author of a blog post, if the author has adopted one.
McDonald, S.(2010, September 27). Noise in the library. [Web log post]. Retrieved from
http://blogs.curtin.edu.au/library/2010/09
the smart one. (2010, October 3). Re: Noise in the library. [Web log comment]. Retrieved from
http://blogs.curtin.edu.au/library/2010/09
Include full URL
Conference paper in Proceedings
(Prayag & Ramjee, 2009)
OR
As discussed by Prayag and Ramjee (2009)
Prayag, I. L., & Ramjee, R. (2009). The impact of Newcastle disease control on smallholder poultry production in Mauritius. In R. G. Alsers, P. B. Spadbrow, & M. P. Young (Eds.), Village chickens, poverty alleviation and the sustainable control of Newcastle disease: Proceedings of an international conference held in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 5-7 October 2005 (pp. 132-134). Canberra, ACT: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research.
In the case of conference proceedings available electronically, replace publisher and location details with the DOI where available or URL in the absence of DOI.
E-mail discussion list – web archive
(cindiann, 2009)
cindiann. (2009, July 23). Re: Recommended photography books [Online discussion group comment]. Retrieved from http://www.flickr.com/groups/365libs/discuss/72157621780867836/
Use the screen name (or nickname) the author adopts if this is used in the discussion group entry.
Facebook
(Page, Note or Update)
If date can be reasonably approximated use ca for (circa) [ca. 2010]
(Group name, 2009)
To cite a Facebook feed as a whole or to discuss it in general give the site URL in text, inside parentheses. There is no need for a reference list entry.
When I was your age, Pluto was a planet. [ca. 2009]. In Facebook [Group page]. Retrieved December 16, 2009, from http://www.facebook.com/group.php?gid=2207893888
Image on the web
The photo “Autumn ivy” (Curtin University Library, 2007)……
Curtin University Library. (2007). Autumn ivy [Image]. Retrieved from http://www.flickr.com/photos/curtinuniversitylibrary/1440410713/
Page 11 of 14
World Wide Web In-Text Example Reference List Examples
ilecture
(Leaver, 2012)
Leaver, T. (2012). Social me(dia) rivers [ilecture]. Retrieved from
http://echo.ilecture.curtin.edu.au:8080/ess/echo/presentation/893b5284-ecad-4ad4-8af7-0ad2a1e19e24
Lecture notes
(Brieger, 2005)
Brieger, B. (2005). Lecture 3: Recruitment and involvement of trainees [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from
http://ocw.jhsph.edu/courses/TrainingMethodsContinuingEducation/lectureNotes.cfm
These are treated like books if they are published, but like personal communication if they are your own notes or unpublished. Lecture notes are considered published if they have been copied and distributed in print or on the web with the instructor’s permission.
Podcast
(Seega & Swan, 2005)
Seega, B. (Producer), & Swan, N. (Presenter). (2005, November 28). Adult ADHD [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from http://www.abc.net.au/rn/talks/8.30/helthrpt
Twitter update or
tweet
(BarackObama, 2009)
To cite a Twitter feed as a whole or to discuss it in general give the site URL in text, inside parentheses. There is no need for a reference list entry.
BarackObama. (2009, July 15). Launched American Graduation Initiative to help additional 5 mill. Americans
graduate college by 2020: http://bit.ly/gcTX7 [Tweet]. Retrieved from http://twitter.com/BarackObama/status/2651151366
Video file
(e.g. YouTube video)
(markapsolon, 2011)
markapsolon. (2011, September 9). Real ghost girl caught on Video Tape 14 [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6nyGCbxD848
Use the screen name markapsolon as it appears online.
If the user’s real name is available list it first, followed by the screen name [markapsolon] in brackets
Web streaming video
Fukuyama (2006) recalled that…
Fukuyama, M. (2006). At the corner of me and myself: Voices of multiple social identities [Streaming video]. Hanover, MA: Microtraining Associates. Retrieved from http://ctiv.alexanderstreet.com.dbgw.lis.curtin.edu.au/View/535741
Government Publications In-Text Example Reference List Examples
Acts of Parliament (including bills)
The Commonwealth’s Copyright Act 1968…
(In future references, omit date)
Legislation is included in a list of references only if it is important to an understanding of the work.
Set the list apart from the main body of the reference under the subheading ‘Legislation’.
Essential elements:
Short Title of Act (Jurisdiction) eg: Copyright Act 1968 (Cth)
When using a section in an Act, you can do a pinpoint reference eg: Criminal Code WA, s. 348
If legislation is obtained from an electronic database, add a retrieved statement as for electronic journal articles.
Page 12 of 14
Government Publications In-Text Example Reference List Examples
Case
(John Fairfax Publications Pty Ltd v Gacic, 2007)
John Fairfax Publications Pty Ltd v Gacic [2007] HCA 28
If case is obtained from an electronic database, add a retrieved statement as for electronic journal articles.
Australian Bureau of Statistics Bulletin
(Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2008)
OR
(Australian Bureau of Statistics [ABS], 2008) and for subsequent citations use (ABS, 2008)
Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2008). Childhood education and care (No. 4402.0). Canberra, ACT: Author.
The word ‘Author’ is used as the publisher when the author and publisher are the same
Statistics from the Australian Bureau of Statistics
website
(Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2008)
See above
Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2008). Childhood education and care (No. 4402.0). Retrieved from
http://www.abs.gov.au
Census Information
(Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2006)
See above
See above
Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2006). Census of population and housing: B01 selected characteristics
(First release processing) postal area 6050. Retrieved from http://www.censusdata.abs.gov.au
Government Report
(Bureau of Infrastructure, Transport and Regional Economics, 2010)
Bureau of Infrastructure, Transport and Regional Economics. (2010). Aircraft movements through capital city airports to 2029-30 (Report 117). Retrieved from http://www.bitre.gov.au/publications/55/Files/
Report%20117.pdf
Fact Sheet
(RAND Corporation, 2006)
RAND Corporation. (2006). Three steps for improving the quality of mental health care in the United States
[Fact sheet]. Retrieved from http://www.rand.org/pubs/research_briefs/2006/RAND_RB9190.pdf Other Sources In-Text Example Reference List Examples
Brochure
(Research and Training Centre on Independent Living, 2008, p. 2)
Research and Training Centre on Independent Living. (2008). Guidelines for reporting and writing about people with disabilities (11th ed.) [Brochure]. Melbourne, Vic: Author.
Add Author for the publisher when the author and publisher are the same.
Computer
Software
(Miller, 1993)
Miller, M. E. (1993). The interactive tester (Version 4.0) [Computer software]. Westminster, CA: Psytek Services.
Instead of author use the Programmer or Rightsholder
Page 13 of 14
Other Sources In-Text Example Reference List Examples
ERIC document (microfiche)
Davis and Lombardi (1996) put forward the proposal that…
Davis, R. K., & Lombardi, T. P. (1996). The quality of life of rural high school special education graduates. In Rural goals 2000: Building programs that work [Microfiche]. (ED394765).
Films and
Video recordings of films.
(Scorsese & Lonergan, 2000)
Scorsese, M. (Producer), & Lonergan, K. (Writer/Director). (2000). You can count on me [Motion picture]. Hollywood, CA: Paramount Pictures.
DVDs and video recordings
(American Psychological Association, 2000)
American Psychological Association. (Producer). (2000). Responding therapeutically to patient expressions of sexual attraction [DVD]. Washington, DC: Author.
The word ‘Author’ is used as the publisher when the author and publisher are the same
Data Set
(U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, 2011)
U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. (2011). IPEDS enrolment survey [Data file]. Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/forum/datamodel/eiebrowser/datasets.aspx
Personal
communication, e-mail and discussion lists with no web archive
It was confirmed that an outbreak
occurred in London (S. Savieri, personal communication, April 24, 1999)
Not included in reference list as they cannot be traced by the reader.
Patent
U.S. Patent No. 66991798-B1 (2004)
OR
(U.S. Patent No. 66991798-B1, 2004)
Lindsay, S. J. (2004). U.S. Patent No. 66991798-B1. Derwent Innovations Index: United States Patent Office.
Standard
(Standards Australia, 1997)
Standards Australia. (2010). Child restraint systems for use in motor vehicles (AS/NZ 1754:2010). Retrieved from http://www.saiglobal.com
Shorten URL
Television and
radio programmes -single episode in a series
(Thomason, Rudd, & Fineri, 2007)
Thomason, M., Rudd, P., & Fineri, W. (Writers/Directors). (2007). North West Passage [Television series episode]. In T. Wright (Supervising Producer), Captain Cook: Obsession and discovery. Melbourne, Vic: Film Australia.
Television and
radio programmes -series or single programme
Leonard and de Pieri (2009)
Leonard, D. (Producer), & de Pieri, S. (Presenter). (2009). A gondola on the Murray [Television series]. Melbourne, Vic: ABC Television.
A single programme is called a Television broadcast. Specify the broadcast date for a single programme.
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Authors citing other authors In-Text Examples Reference List Examples
Book
Quote by one author used in the text of a different book
… including neuralgia (Carini & Hogan, as cited in Thibodeau & Patton, 2002, p. 45)
OR
Carini and Hogan’s study (as cited in Thibodeau & Patton, 2002, p. 45)
Thibodeau, G. A., & Patton, K. T. (Eds.). (2002). The human body in health and disease. St. Louis, MO:
Mosby.
Record the book that you actually used.
Journal article
Quote by one author used in the text of a different article
Carini and Hogan’s study (as cited in Patton, 2002)
OR
“… origins of neuralgia” (Carini & Hogan, as cited in Patton, 2002, p. 2154)
Patton, K. T. (2002). Neuralgia and headaches. Science, 400, 2153-55.
Record the journal that you actually used.

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