Follow these procedures: If requested by your instructor, please include an assignment cover sheet. This will become the first page of your assignment. In addition, your assignment header should include your last name, first initial, course code, dash, and assignment number. This should be left justified, with the page number right justified. For example: Cole, T.EDR 7105- 10

Follow these procedures: If requested by your instructor, please include an assignment cover sheet. This will become the first page of your assignment. In addition, your assignment header should include your last name, first initial, course code, dash, and assignment number. This should be left justified, with the page number right justified. For example:

Cole, T.EDR 7105- 10

Save a copy of your assignments: You may need to re-submit an assignment at your instructor’s request. Make sure you save your files in accessible location.

Academic integrity: All work submitted in each course must be your own original work. This includes all assignments, exams, term papers, and other projects required by your instructor. Knowingly submitting another person’s work as your own, without properly citing the source of the work, is considered plagiarism. This will result in an unsatisfactory grade for the work submitted or for the entire course. It may also result in academic dismissal from the University.
EDR7105
Assignment #10

Tamiika,
Thank you for your submission. The objective of this assignment was to ensure alignment between your problem, purpose, questions and methods. Then, you were asked to briefly describe your intended methodology and develop interview questions intended to answer your research question. You have partially met these objectives.

The main concern at this point is that you have not identified a narrow, specific, and focused problem. The topic of at-risk youth being incarcerated is important. However, your dissertation research will not solve this problem. Rather, it will provide information about one small part of the overall problem. Therefore, your next steps are to continue to review the literature to identify a gap – in other words, what do we not know about this problem. Then, align your purpose, questions and methods. See my comments below and please review the following about alignment: https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B8YveCteJ30WSXhoYWN6TFg4WUE/edit?usp=sharing

From there, you should be able to identify interview questions that will provide data to answer your research question. For an example of a model you might consider to use in developing your own interview protocol, see

Castillo-Montoya, M. (2016). Preparing for interview research: The interview
protocol refinement framework. The Qualitative Report, 21(5). Retrieved from http://nsuworks.nova.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2337&context=tqr

Finally, I would like you to consider how your plans for executing your interviews align with the literature. Remember to always use citations to describe why you have chosen the specific techniques in addition to how you plan to carry them out. A good place to start is

Turner, D. (2010). Qualitative interview design: A practical guide for novice investigators. The Qualitative Report, 15(3). Retrieved from http://nsuworks.nova.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1178&context=tqr

Note that the information from this assignment will be used again in assignment 12. While there is considerable work to be done, you will need to go back and make revisions so you can successfully complete that assignment. If you have questions or need additional feedback, please let me know. I am available via email or via telephone during my office hours. If you would like to visit outside of my office hours via telephone, I am happy to make an appointment.

Laurie Bedford 4/17/17

Grading Rationale
Numerical Points Letter Grade Descriptor Explanation
100-94
93-90 A
A- Excellent Completes all required parts of the assignment, demonstrates deep understanding of materials, uses very clear and effective expression appropriate to scholarly writing, and has very few or no errors in grammar, mechanics, and APA formatting.
89-87
86-83 B+
B Good Completes all or most required parts of the assignment, demonstrates good understanding of readings, uses mostly clear and effective expression appropriate to scholarly writing, and has few errors in grammar, mechanics, and APA formatting.
82-80
79-77 B-
C+ Fair Completes most required parts of the assignment, demonstrates some understanding of readings, and writing is somewhat clear, effective, and scholarly, and has some errors in grammar, mechanics, and APA formatting.
76-73 C Poor Completes some required parts of the assignment, demonstrates some understanding of readings, and writing is difficult to understand and unscholarly and has several errors in grammar, mechanics, and APA formatting.
72-0 F Unacceptable Completes few required parts of the assignment, demonstrates little understanding of readings, and writing is difficult to understand and unscholarly and has many errors in grammar, mechanics, and APA formatting.
School-To-Prison Pipeline
Introduction
This terminology is used to refer the trend of children or youth from public schools ending up in juvenile and criminal justice systems. Most of the children represented here have histories of abuse, neglect or learning disabilities. They are majorly from minority communities.
Statement of the Problem
Several factors have caused youth to make the transition from school to juvenile system. A research by Cramer, Gonzalez & Pellegrini-Lafont (2014) showed that African Americans had the most diagnosis of learning disability and subsequently the highest risk group to undergo school-to-prison. Latino are next in that order. These two groups make the most of school dropout and prison populations (Guerino, Harrison & Sabol, 2011). This can be pointed out to the criminalization of at-risk youth, sometimes for nonviolent crimes.
Suspensions and expulsions increase the potential of criminal offending by the youth. A study by Cuellar & Markowitz (2015) showed that the out-of-school suspensions and expulsions more than double the probability of arrest for these youths. Furthermore, Wilson (2014) also argued that the suspensions and expulsions were the main causes for the school-to-prison pipeline issue.
As expressed by Cramer, Gonzalez & Pellegrini-Lafont (2014), the number of student suspensions have been increasing over the years. This has directly correlated with increased prison-to-prison circumstances. The minority youth, who have been overrepresented in the school-to-prison issue for quite some time, are constantly facing risks and threats of criminalization which displays a major problem and cause for concern for the lives of these youth.
Purpose of the Study
Every youth has a right to good education and productive lives. The less privileged youth can only achieve this feat through public schools which are affordable to them. It is this public-school system that has seen high rates of suspensions, dropouts and criminalization of the minority. The policies that have been put in place have only made the problem worse.
The purpose of this case study is to get detailed and in-depth knowledge on the issue of school-to-prison and identify ways that can help reduce the numbers and rates at which youth are moving from school to prison. The study will help determine means of ensuring youth are able to stay in school and not partake in criminal behavior.
The case study design is appropriately used in this situation to describe the experiences of persons with ample knowledge and contact with the issue at hand. The method conveniently covers the problem, prompts discussion on the topic and provides sufficient information to the readers.
Literature Review
Increased criminalization of school discipline has been the result of putting in place the zero tolerance policies. These policies essentially criminalize minor infractions of the rules in school. Additionally, the presence of police in schools has led to criminalization of students for behavior that would otherwise be solved in the school (Schept, Wall, Brisman, 2015). Schools widely started increasing the use of school resources on campus in inner city schools. Harsh and hardline measure for discipline were implemented. The establishment zero tolerance methods for dealing with student misconduct as the order of the day pit the education of minority youth against criminalization.
Links have been clearly established between outdoor suspension or school expulsion and juvenile detention. Skiba et al (2011) stated that African Americans were at risk of poor performance academically and potential clash with juvenile justice system due to the overrepresentation in suspensions and expulsions. It has been observed that students on outdoor suspensions are often without supervision from adults which tends to increase the probability of engagement in criminal behavior (Skiba et al, 2011).
A lot of professionals in the field have suggested other school discipline policies as a means to lower the outdoor suspension rate, which will eventually lower the rate of criminalization of youth. One method brought forward to deal with school-to-prison issue was the use of social workers who would work with at-risk youth and also engage in early identification of special education youth in juvenile systems (Mallet, 2012). The use of social workers could have the advantage of enhancing the benefits that students can reap from the program, including better social skills and meeting of their basic needs. Moreover, the workers can extend their services to the families of the youth involved. The drawback from early identification of special education youth is that they have already suffered the plight of criminalization (Mallet, 2012).
There is one program that has been able to offer academic support, monitoring of the progress and mentoring of students who committed nonviolent crimes within school. This is the WISE arrest diversion program which enrolled the said students in the program rather than them getting arrested for their crimes. There is also a behavioral intervention plan that focuses on positive reinforcement for students and adults. This plan falls short of the WISE program due to the behavioral aspect that it only addresses in comparison to the WISE program which deals with the students in a more holistic way. A positive aspect of the behavioral intervention plan is that it can be integrated into any school model, but it hardly offers the whole solution. Students should also be provided with academic support and a curriculum that is relevant to them (Guerino, Harrison & Sabol, 2011, Piquero, 2008).
A study on the correlation between youth with learning or emotional disability and juvenile court system showed that minority, special education students with backgrounds of lower socio-economic state were mostly affected. Solving the issues of at-risk youth may require that educators determine the best ways for the students to learn and means for assimilation of relevant social and problem solving skills into the curriculum of the youth (Piquero, 2008).
In order for the at-risk youth to appreciate and see the relevancy of the lessons to them, a connection must be made with the curriculum. Hands on learning and frequent movement might be very beneficial to the youth. The regular interaction also allows connecting with other students which means less chances of misbehavior. It is crucial that academic and behavior support be established for these youths because the numbers of special education students and teachers are inordinate (Wilson, 2013).
Research Questions
There are several factors that brought about the increased cases of students going to prison. The research questions that help in addressing the situation and determining ways of alleviating the issue are as follows; –
1. What are the aspects of the education system and the youth that have promoted criminalization and juvenile incarceration?
2. In what ways can the youth avoid committing criminal offenses and subsequently ending up in prison?
3. What measures, plans and programs can sufficiently enable the reduction of dropouts, suspensions, criminalization and incarceration of minority youth?
Interview Questions
1. Have many times have you committed any kind of crime at school?
2. What are the main crimes committed in school that have promoted school-to-prison problem?
3. What do you think should be done to offenders in school?
4. How do you feel about the harsh rules for offenders in school?
5. Is the juvenile system appropriate for at-risk youth?
6. What alternative punishment should be given to those committing nonviolent crimes instead of arresting them?
7. Why do minority youths have high rates of dropouts and suspensions?
8. Why do you think the minority students are more likely to engage in crime?
9. How does the juvenile justice system help offenders?
10. What plans or programs do you suppose will help curb the school-to-prison ordeal?
Interview Process
The interview process will involve youth in a large urban setting in South Florida. 20 participants will take part in the study. These will be composed of 15 African American and Latino middle school age students with history of suspension from school and 5 middle school teachers from the same region. The interview will be done through face to face and each interview will take thirty minutes. The data will be recorded through audio recording and written notes. As the facilitator of the whole process, I will also provide emotional support role for the participants.

References
Cramer, E.D., Gonzalez, L., & Pellegrini-Lafont, C. (2014).From Class to Inmates: an
Integrated Approach to Break the School-to-Prison pipeline. Equity and excellence in education, 47(4), 461-475
Cuellar, A. E., & Markowitz, S. (2015). School Suspension and the School-to-Prison Pipeline.
International Review of Law & Economics.
Mallett, C. A. (2015). The school-to-prison pipeline: A Critical Review of the Punitive Paradigm
Shift. Child & Adolescent Social Work Journal.
Wilson, M. G. (2013). Disrupting the Pipeline: The Role of School Leadership in Mitigating
Exclusion and Criminalization of Students. Journal Of Special Education Leadership, 26(2), 61-70.
Schept, J., Wall, T., &Brisman, A. (2015). Building, Staffing, and Insulating: An Architecture of
Criminological complicity in the school-to-prison pipeline. Social Justice, 41(4), 96-115. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.proxy1.ncu.edu/docview/1713975672?accountid=28180
Skiba, R. J., Arredondo, M. I., & Williams, N. T. (2014). More Than a Metaphor: The
Contribution of Exclusionary Discipline to a School-to-Prison Pipeline. Equity & Excellence in Education, 47(4), 546. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.proxy1.ncu.edu/docview/1636484690?accountid=28180
Wilson, H. (2014). Turning off the School-to-Prison Pipeline. Reclaiming Children & Youth,
23(1), 49-53.
Guerino, P., Harrison, P. M., & Sabol, W. J. (2011). Prisoners in 2010. Bureau of Justice
Statistics, Washington, DC.
Piquero, A. R. (2008). Disproportionate minority contact. The Future of Children, 18(2), 59-79.

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