Homework Assignment (for Prof GeGee)

Homework Assignment (for Prof GeGee)
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Please provide post to the below discussion. List all sources in APA format. let me know if any questions.

Discussion Seven – Challenges for the 21st Century
The four ethical topics pertinent to organizations in the IT industry and organizations that make use of IT: 1) use of nontraditional workers, 2) whistle-blowing, 3) green computing, and 4) ICT code of ethics. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, during the period from 2006 to 2014, networking and data communications positions are forecasted to grow by 50%.

In response to the projected shortfall of labor, employers are turning to contingent workers, H-1B workers, and outsourced offshore workers.

H-1B as a temporary working visa granted by the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) for people who work in jobs that require a four-year bachelor’s degree or higher in a specific field. Companies turn to H-1B workers to meet critical business needs or to obtain essential technical skills and knowledge that are not readily found in the U.S. H-1B professionals often are hired to provide technical expertise in overseas markets or on projects that enable U.S. companies to compete globally. Employers are required to pay H-1B workers the prevailing wage for U.S. workers to do equivalent jobs, and a person can work for a U.S. employer on an H-1B visa for a maximum of six continuous years.

Outsourcing as a long-term business approach to meeting staffing needs. With outsourcing, companies make contracts with an outside firm to perform a specialized function on an ongoing basis, and give examples of outsourcing. Coemployment legal problems are minimal because the company that contracts for services does not supervise or control the contractor’s employees. Primary rationale for outsourcing is to lower costs, but companies also use it to gain strategic flexibility and to focus on their core competencies.

Whistle-blowing as an effort to attract public attention to a negligent, illegal, unethical, abusive, or dangerous act by a company that threatens the public interest. In most cases, whistle-blowers act ethically in an attempt to correct what they think is a major wrongdoing, often at great personal risk. The whistle-blower usually has special information about what is happening based on personal expertise or a position of employment within the offending organization.

There are no comprehensive federal laws to protect all whistle-blowers; rather, there are numerous laws, and each protects a certain class of whistle-blowing acts in various industries.

In order to manufacture truly “green” products, companies must: 1) reduce the amount of hazardous materials used, 2) increase the amount of reusable or recyclable materials, and 3) help consumers dispose of their products in an environmentally safe manner at the end of the product’s useful life. Electronic devices contain thousands of components, some harmful to humans and environment. The entire supply chain is at risk.

Discussion Topic

Discuss what you think is a serious ethical IT challenge. What specific company or industry might face risks from these challenges? How would you avoid ethical issues?
Information Technology and Ethics/Non-traditional Workers
Contingent Workers
Companies use contingent workers for job situations in which an individual does not have an explicit contract for long-term employment.Contingent workers includes independent contractors and temporary workers.Companies use contingent workers when they have an increased need for personnel.Temporary staffing firms recruit, train and test job seekers in large range of job skills.Temporary work appeal to most people who want and/ or need the flexibility in their work schedule.This also gives them more job experience, this means employees may have more skills.Employers sometimes transfers all or part of its workforce to another firm. The leasing firm handles all human resources related activities and costs.Business also obtain employees from consulting firm. There are advantages to using contingent employees
• Firm does not have to provide benefits
• Can easily adjust the number of workers
• Can easily release workers.
• Contingent workers may already be specialist
Disadvantages for using Contingent workers
• Contingent workers may not feel strong connection to the company.
• skills employees gain from projects is lost to the company when the leave.

H-1B Workers
H-1B is a temporary work visa granted by the USCIS. These people work specialty jobs that require at least a four year bachelors degree (in the USA, 3 years elsewhere) in a specific field.An H1B worker is allowed to work for 6 years then they must leave the U.S. for one year before they can be allowed to petition for another visa. H1B workers make up only 0.1% of the U.S. almost 40% of them are employed in the IT industry.Every year congress sets a federal cap on the number of H-1B visas to be granted, this year the limit is 65,000 visas.6,800 of those visas are reserved for nationals of Singapore and Chile.Foreign workers who teach in american universities, work in government research labs or nonprofit organizations.H1b workers may be exploited because unethical companies may classify them as an entry level worker ,but they are actually doing the job of an experienced tech.Companies may also state that their employees work in an area where wages are lower, but they may actually live and work somewhere different.

Outsourcing
Outsourcing is a long-term business arrangement in which a company contracts for services with an outside organization that has expertise in providing a certain function.The outside organization may perform the following services operating data center, support for telecommunications network, or staffing a help-desk. The reason for outsourcing is to lower costs and strategic flexibility. Offshore outsourcing is the outsourcing of jobs to organization who employees live in a foreign country.

Whistle-blower protection provides safeguards against retaliation for those who report suspected legal or ethical violations

A whistle-blower tells the public and/or the authorities about alleged misconduct occurring in a government department, private company, or organization. The alleged misconduct may take a variety of forms; for example, a violation of a law, rule, or regulation, or a direct threat to public interest, such as fraud, health and safety violations, or corruption. Whistle-blowers may make their allegations internally (to other people within the affected organization) or externally (to regulators, law-enforcement agencies, the media, or groups concerned with the issues).
Many organizations establish internal processes through which employees can come forward if they suspect an ethical or legal violation has occurred. In some cases the processes allow for anonymity. Some organizations have an ombudsperson who handles such matters on a confidential basis and advises the employee about their options should they wish to take formal steps to report the breach to the appropriate internal or external authorities.

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