How has Major League Baseball historically exploited Latin American Children and families and more importantly, how do they keep getting away with it?

Description
Below is a brief summary of the instructions. I have included a full copy of them in the additional materials. There is another document I have included with the beginning of my research, with a couple good sources that would be useful)

Your main objective in this essay is to develop a specific answer to your research question, using multiple scholarly sources as evidence, and explaining why the evidence proves that your answer to the question is the correct answer. This project will take work, so begin early. It will require careful analysis of multiple scholarly sources to produce a specific and effective argument.

Research: You will consult numerous primary and secondary sources (scholarly books, journal articles, memoirs, newspapers, etc.) and ultimately cite at least five different relevant scholarly sources. If anyone is uncertain about whether a source is appropriately scholarly, see me. All information, ideas, and quotations obtained from any source must be footnoted (see the section on footnotes below). If you would like to use any internet source you must first get my permission. If you wish to gain my permission to use an internet source, you must provide a valid argument for why the specific internet source is unique and/or necessary for your thesis. (Obviously, websites such as Wikipedia are inappropriate for this assignment.)

HS230: THE HISTORY OF LATIN AMERICA
GUIDELINES FOR YOUR ANALYTICAL RESEARCH ESSAY AND PEER CRITIQUE

IMPORTANT NOTE:
REFERENCE YOUR SYLLABUS FOR THE DUE DATES ASSOCIATED WITH EACH PHASE OF THIS PROJECT.
LATE WORK IS UNACCEPTABLE.

THE PROCESS:

For this class you will write an analytical research essay (20% of your final class grade), as well as the associated research status report (5% of your final class grade) and a peer critique essay (5% of your final class grade). These assignments are formal essays and must be typed, stapled, size 12 Times New Roman font, double spaced, with 1-inch margins.

For this semester-long project, you will turn in a full-length first draft, receive detailed written feedback from one of your colleagues in the class, and then incorporate suggestions and revisions in a final draft. See the due dates for each stage of this process in your course syllabus (which is available on Blackboard under the ?Course Information? link). Your first draft, peer critique, and final draft must be handed in at the beginning of the regular class period on their respective due dates. No late papers will be accepted.

For your final draft, you must address your peer?s criticisms and revisions. Of course, this does not necessarily mean revising the essay in accordance with every aspect of the peer critique, but rather a careful consideration of the ideas and suggestions of the peer critique.

THE TOPIC FOR YOUR ESSAY:

For this project, you will choose a specific question to research, analyze, and answer in a formal history essay. The research question must directly relate to the field of Latin American history, and specifically address themes of historical causation and significance. You want your research question to be relevant, focused, and manageable in a 7-8-page essay. You are encouraged to design your own research question; I have listed some examples of potential research questions below. You may choose one of these research questions for your project if you wish (or you may decide to adjust one of these research questions to reflect your own scholarly interests) but the list below is by no means exhaustive ? there are an infinite number of potential research questions that deserve scholarly attention. Once you have a specific research question in mind, you will drop by during my office hours to discuss your project (the sooner the better).

– What were the most significant roles played by the Catholic Church in the colonial period of Spanish America? How did this impact the colonial system?
– What were the most effective ways in which indigenous peoples preserved elements of their culture during the period of colonialism?
– What historical factors led some regions of Latin America, such as Brazil and the Caribbean colonies, to become slave societies while other areas did not? Which of these factors was the most significant and why?
– What were the most important causes of the wars of independence in Spanish America? What events, cultural and social factors, economic issues, and political ideas influenced the paths taken by the Spanish colonies toward independence? Which of these factors was the most important and why?
– How and why was Brazil?s path toward independence so different from the rest of Latin America?
– What was the essential nature of the Liberalism of Spanish America?s Post-Independence period? What did the liberals attempt and/or strive for? To what degree were they successful?
– What obstacles hindered liberal dreams after the wars of independence? Whose lives were most altered by these trends and why? What type of political and economic systems arose to replace liberal governments and why?
– How did the process of Neocolonialism and the concept of ?Progress? influence Latin American politics, economics, and societies? In what ways were Neocolonialism and Progress linked? Did they have a uniform impact on all of Latin America or did their impact vary by region or nation? Why?
– What historical forces have created conditions of poverty and underdevelopment in areas of Central America?
– Which historical factors preserved the institution of slavery in Brazil for so long? Which of these factors was the most important and why? What factors ultimately led to the abolition of slavery in Brazil?
– What historical factors led Mexico and the United States to go to war in the nineteenth century?
– What is the best way to define Latin American Nationalism in the 20th century? What impact did Nationalism have on Latin American lives, identities, politics, and economics? Where and how did Nationalism contribute to revolutionary movements? What conditions fostered violent reactions to Marxist influences? Discuss specifically Mexico, Cuba, and/or Central America.
– Have the causes of Latin America?s economic underdevelopment been primarily external or internal? Why?
– What led large numbers of European immigrants to Argentina in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries? How did this immigration influence the history of that nation?
– How and why did the ideology of fascism influence some Latin American nations?
– How did the United States? Good Neighbor Policy influence its relationship with the Caribbean nations and Mexico?
– Is it appropriate to consider the policy of Import Substitution Industrialization as a success or a failure in Latin America? Why?
– What factors have created the crisis of deforestation in the Amazon Rain Forest? Which of these factors is the most important and why?
– What caused Great Britain and Argentina to go to war in the 1980s? What was the significance of this conflict for Latin America more generally?
– What historical factors led some groups in twentieth-century Latin America to subscribe to Marxist philosophies while others did not? (Discuss specifically Cuba, Chile, Mexico, Nicaragua, or Argentina.)
– How has the Latin American music industry impacted (or been impacted by) the process of globalization? What is the significance of this?
– What were the most important factors leading to the creation of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)? Has NAFTA been a positive or a negative force for Mexico? Why?
– What historical forces lead to the rise of powerful drug cartels in some regions of Latin America but not in others? How have the cartels influenced history in these regions?
– How have the works of artists like Frieda Kahlo and Diego Rivera impacted ideas of Latin America in the US (or elsewhere in the world)? Novelists such as Gabriel Garcia Marquez?
– What led to the creation of the Caribbean Community (CARICOM)? Is it appropriate to consider this organization as a success or a failure? Why?

Your main objective in this essay is to develop a specific answer to your research question, using multiple scholarly sources as evidence, and explaining why the evidence proves that your answer to the question is the correct answer. This project will take work, so begin early. It will require careful analysis of multiple scholarly sources to produce a specific and effective argument.

Research: You will consult numerous primary and secondary sources (scholarly books, journal articles, memoirs, newspapers, etc.) and ultimately cite at least five different relevant scholarly sources. If anyone is uncertain about whether a source is appropriately scholarly, see me. All information, ideas, and quotations obtained from any source must be footnoted (see the section on footnotes below). If you would like to use any internet source you must first get my permission. If you wish to gain my permission to use an internet source, you must provide a valid argument for why the specific internet source is unique and/or necessary for your thesis. (Obviously, websites such as Wikipedia are inappropriate for this assignment.)

ANALYTICAL ESSAY INSTRUCTIONS:

This formal essay will be no less than seven (7) full pages and no more than eight (8) full pages of text, typed, stapled, size 12 Times New Roman font, double spaced, with 1-inch margins. You will turn in a full-length first draft, receive detailed written feedback from one of your colleagues in the class, and then respond to suggestions and revisions in a final draft. Reference your course syllabus for each of these respective due dates.

Use the following format as a guide as you first create an outline and then begin writing your paper:

? Introduction: Spend time perfecting your introduction. The intro should be tightly written and clear. What is your main contention or finding? Lead with this. What is the central argument of YOUR essay? Define it. In other words, your introduction is where you outline your thesis (argument). Your thesis must be unique – a fresh answer to an important historical question. State what your essay will prove and how you will prove it. Your opening paragraph is especially important. It must capture the reader. It must also provide hard details that convey to the reader why you are writing this essay and why she/he ought to read it.

An effective introduction paragraph must address the following points:
(1) The topic of your paper.
a. What historical issue(s) will be explained and analyzed? Be specific.
(2) The original thesis (argument) to be proven in your paper.
a. What is the central argument of your paper? State what you will prove about the causation and significance of the issues raised by your research question. Be specific, and make sure your argument addresses each part of the assignment.
b. Why is your unique thesis important? Be specific.

? Discussion of the relevant literature: In two or three paragraphs, discuss the most significant works and ideas that have already been published on this topic or closely related topics. (Note: this section of your paper is both crucial and required.) What ideas/theses have you read in books or journal articles on this topic? What is valuable and/or flawed about these works? And most importantly, you must stress how the thesis of your paper contributes something fresh to the topic. In light of the other literature on the subject, tell your reader exactly what is fresh and important about your paper?s unique thesis.

? Main body of your argument: Strive for cadence, balance, and logical sequence of these paragraphs. Think about the logical progression of your arguments. Present your evidence and analysis in an organized fashion. Explain the connections between various pieces of information; do not leave it up to the reader. Above all else, use this section to validate your thesis. Give specific evidence (examples) and reasons for your argument. Remember, you are limited to eight pages of text ? so do not wander off topic or provide unnecessary details. Your thesis is advanced through analysis of primary and secondary evidence, not summary.

? Conclusion: The paper should begin and end with your own thinking on the issue of your thesis – for instance, what are the most significant findings of your research and analysis? What are the implications of what you have found? There should be no new facts or information in the conclusion – just a useful synopsis of the contents of your essay.

? Bibliography: At the end of your paper, your bibliography lists the sources you have used in your essay. Note that your bibliography does not count toward the 7-8 page length requirement.

PEER CRITIQUE INSTRUCTIONS:

For the peer critique, you will receive and read the first draft of one of your colleagues? analytical essays and then write a minimum one-page review, typed, stapled, size 12 Times New Roman font, double spaced, with 1-inch margins. Your critique must assess the draft?s strengths and weaknesses, as well as provide constructive criticism and specific suggestions for improved effectiveness.

In your critique of a colleague?s first draft, it is especially important that you address the thesis in their draft. Usually the thesis in a rough draft is not as specific and effective as it could be. You (the peer editor) can help with this. Does the introduction paragraph contain a clear thesis addressing issues of causation and significance? In other words, does the thesis fully engage the task set for the assignment? In the critique you write, tell your partner what you believe their specific thesis is, and explain which sections of the paper are effective in proving the thesis and why, and explain which sections require revision to be more effective and why. Give specific examples and make specific suggestions for revision. No first draft is perfect, so you need not fear offending the author by offering a serious and carefully considered critique. In fact, the best way to compliment a draft and show respect for a fellow scholar is to provide the most thorough and critical analysis of their draft that you can.

When critiquing your peer?s first draft, carefully consider the following points as part of your analysis:
– Does the introduction paragraph contain a clear thesis that answers a specific research question? In other words, does the thesis fully engage the task set for the assignment?
– Is a single focus emphasized throughout the entire essay?
– Does the paper contain a useful literature review?
– Is the thesis well supported with specific examples, details, and analysis?
– Has the topic been well researched? Has the author consulted scholarly sources?
– Is primary and secondary evidence analyzed specifically and effectively to prove the thesis?
– Does each body paragraph fully explain how the evidence given helps prove the thesis?
– Is there any summary (or other material not related to proving the thesis) that should be cut?
– Does the paper have complete and proper footnotes?
– Has the author followed the style guidelines completely?
– What errors can you identify in grammar, spelling, and punctuation?
– Does the conclusion adequately summarize the argument and main findings of the essay?
Conclude your critique with a brief summary of both:
– The essay?s strongest components and characteristics (i.e. what the author has done well).
– The aspects of the essay that require revision to make it more effective.

After having read your critique, your peer will then have the opportunity to respond to your critique in a rewrite of the original essay. The original essay, the peer review, and the rewritten essay will then be turned in to me, en masse, at which time I will grade the final draft of the analytical essay and the peer critique. Reference your course syllabus for each of these due dates.

STYLE:

– Attach a cover page containing the unique title of your research paper, your name, the title of the class, the semester, and the day and time our class meets. The cover page must also specify ?Rough Draft? or ?Final Draft.? The cover page is not part of the 7-8-page length requirement.

– Number your pages. (Note: the cover page is not to be numbered. The first page of text is page 1.)

– Never use rhetorical questions, contractions, abbreviations, clich?s, colloquialisms, or slang in your academic writing.

– Staple your work. This is very important. A paper without a staple is not finished. Come to class with your paper already stapled. Do not use any type of folder or jacket to bind your paper. A simple staple is always best.

– Your computer’s “Spell Check” function is not the same as proofreading. Read your essays aloud as you proofread – this is extremely helpful for locating errors and typos. Checking for errors and typos is vital to an effective essay. If a paper is full of stylistic mistakes, the reader is more likely to be suspicious of the validity of the content too. If someone did not take the time to check that their work read smoothly and clearly, why would they have bothered to check their facts and assertions?

– When writing, think about the most effective way to present information. Avoid personalizing information and avoid the first person singular in general.

o For example, “I think the author makes a good point” sounds okay, but it is really just opinion. “The author makes a good point” is much bolder, authoritative, and convincing – it does not sound like opinion; it sounds like a fact (whether it is a fact or not is not the issue, it sounds like a fact and that is what is important).

o Avoid using “I”, “my”, “me”, as much as possible. This also applies to “in my opinion” etc. Make your work sound more convincing by removing personal references. Readers already know it is your opinion because it is your essay.

– Avoid overusing words such as clearly, obviously, basically, or plainly.

– Always use active voice. ?Nancy led the discussion? is strong. ?The discussion was led by Nancy? is weak.

– Take great care to keep verb tenses consistent throughout, typically in the past tense.

– Spell out all numbers zero to ninety-nine. Use numerals for numbers 100 and higher.

CITATION REQUIREMENTS:

– Your papers (rough draft, final draft, peer critique) must conform to regular academic standards: i.e. you must reference (cite) any and all sources consulted using the Chicago Style. Use footnotes for your citations. This is a requirement. Do not use parenthetical references for sources. A paper submitted without footnotes (in the proper format) will receive a zero score. All style matters will be addressed by the following work unless otherwise discussed: Kate L. Turabian. A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, 6th ed. (or newer) Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996. ISBN: 0-226-816273. You may also reference the following website for examples of proper footnote citations for various sources: http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

– Your papers must conform to GRCC?s policy on academic integrity ? plagiarism is cheating and will result in a zero grade. Consult the guidelines for avoiding plagiarism in the ?Assignments? section of Blackboard for further information. The best way to avoid plagiarism is to ensure that all sources are referenced with proper and complete footnotes.

– Below are examples of Chicago Style footnotes citing a journal article and a scholarly book.
FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS:

? Staples
o Any paper that has more than one page must be stapled. Do not use paperclips. Do not perform any elaborate acts of origami on your paper; use a stapler. If you do not have a stapler, get one. If the paper is not stapled, it is not completed and will not be accepted.

? Formal Papers
o As noted above, Chicago style footnote citations are required for all formal papers.
o Use only Times New Roman 12pt font.
o Do not submit papers with 1.25″ margins. Use only 1″ margins.
o Double space at all times, except when block quoting three or more lines of a source ? these must be single-spaced.
o Do not add extra lines between paragraphs or sections. Do not add extra lines anywhere, this includes the start of your paper ? it should not begin half-way down the page, it should start on the first line.
o Make sure you include a title page.

? Length Requirement
o To determine your paper’s true page length according to Chicago style, I may require you to submit an electronic version of your paper and if necessary I will adjust your margins, font, and line spacing to determine the true length.

? Authors’ Names
o Use the author’s full name the first time you mention, use, or cite an author. Subsequent mentions may use just the last name.
o Never refer to the author by his/her first name only.

? Saving Documents
o Although I may sympathize when a student loses an assignment due to computer problems, it happens so frequently that I do not consider computer error a valid excuse for a late assignment. To avoid problems, follow the suggestions below:
? CD or DVD ROMs: Do not use only these to save your work, as they break easily. USB flash drives are a far more secure option.
? Save Your Work: Save your work often and in at least two places, such as your hard-drive, flash drive, web-based email, or web briefcase/folder. If you are working on a paper in a computer lab, save your work to your flash drive every five minutes. Never save your work to a computer lab desktop. Again, this is not an acceptable excuse for not submitting work on time. Also, as an additional precaution, email the file to yourself regularly as an attachment (although do not make this your only method of saving work).
? Yes, Microsoft Office is a creation of pure evil (especially the 2007 edition), however, it does not delete people?s work wantonly ? it is actually incredibly difficult (pretty much impossible, actually) to entirely delete a paper by accident. Again, this is not considered a valid excuse for failure to submit work on time.
? You know the class deadlines ? plan ahead.

? Due Dates
o As per the syllabus, anyone who fails to complete all of the exams and essays for this course will receive a failing grade for the course.
o Remember, all work must be turned in on time. No late work can be accepted.
o For detailed grading criteria ? please see the grading guidelines available on Blackboard (under the ?Assignments? tab).

HS230 The History of Latin America Research Status Reporting (Due September 29)

Name: Andrew Minch_______________________________

By now you should have chosen a specific research question and by the end of September you should be neck-deep in research materials. In this report, you will identify one scholarly book, one journal article, and one primary source that you are using to inform your research, and then explain how you are using each resource. You may submit your report as an essay that addresses all the components specified below, or you may type your answers in the spaces provided within this document and then print it.

State your research question here:_How has Major League Baseball historically exploited Latin American Children and families and more importantly, how do they keep getting away with it? ____________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

A. Scholarly Book (Monograph):
– A scholarly book is a focused work by a professional academic (in this case, usually a historian) that investigates and analyzes a specific topic. These works contain a specific thesis (an original argument about the subject), new information about the subject, and citations.

Author:_Jorge Iber, Samuel O. Regalado, Jose M. Alamillo, Arnoldo De Leon ___________________________________________________________________
Title:_Latino’s in U.S. Sport
___________________________________________________________________
Publication information:__Human Kinetics Publishing. Copyright 2011. _____________________________________________________

– Use the space below to carefully answer the following questions (your answers for this section should comprise approximately two full paragraphs):
1. What is the author?s thesis in this book?
2. How will you use this work to develop a unique answer to your research question?
There was not really a concise thesis, but rather a broad overview of the entire history of sports in Latin America. Mainly the most popular sports of baseball and futbol. The main point that I got from reading this text was that latin ball players of any sort have a much harder time succeeding because of the overwhelming odds they face to even make it out of High School, let alone the Major leauges.

This work will help me to answer my research question, by first examining the love Latin Americans have for their sports, specifically baseball for my particular question. This text will help me understand the type of upbringing these players have and why they might be so quick to sign a contract. This book will give me a general overview of my topic, however I am still searching for books with more specific answers to my question.

B. Scholarly Journal Article:
– Such articles present high quality research on specific topics. Shorter but otherwise similar to scholarly books, these articles are written by professional academics investigating and analyzing a particular subject. These works contain a thesis (an original argument about the subject), new information about the subject, and citations.

Author:_Samuel O. Regalado
______________________________________________________________________
Title:_?Latin players on the cheap? Professional Baseball recruitment in Latin America and the Neocolonialist Tradition ____________________________________________________________________
Publication information:__
Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies, Vol. 8, No. 1, Symposium: Baseball in theGlobal Era: Economic, Legal, and Cultural Perspectives (Fall, 2000), pp. 9-20
Published by: Indiana University Press_______________________________________________________

– Use the space below to carefully answer the following questions (your answers for this section should comprise approximately two full paragraphs):
1. What is the author?s thesis in this journal article?
2. How will you use this work to develop a unique answer to your research question?
In this article Mr. Regalado looks at the History of American Companies exploiting the many resources of Latin America, including its Natural Resources, land and most importantly its people. He comes to the conclusion that Major League Baseball Teams use the same format that the Standard Oil Company in Mexico and the united fruit company of Guatemala used to gain an advantage. Monopolize the Labor force and pay them cheaper wages.

I will use Mr. Regaloado’s work to try and understand just how long this practice has been used. This along with similar journal entries will help to explain, why so many Latin American youths are attracted to the sport and why they sign contracts with little or no knowledge of what they actually say. It will also work to describe the conditions of play in latin American Countries, particularly in The Dominican Republic, Venezuela and Mexico.

C. Primary Source:
– A primary source is something that is contemporary to the period of history that you are researching. It dates from the time period you are investigating and writing about. Examples of primary sources include diaries, journals, letters, newspaper articles, memoirs, government documents, photographs, music, and poetry (this is hardly an exhaustive list of things that may be considered primary sources, but you get the idea.) Please feel free to contact me if you are in any doubt as to whether something is a primary source or not.

Author: Major League Baseball and The Players Association_______________________________________________________________________
Title: Major league baseball collective bargaining agreement (2012-present)_________________________________________________________________________
Publication information:_http://mlb.mlb.com/pa/pdf/cba_english.pdf________________________________________________________

– Use the space below to carefully answer the following questions (your answers for this section should comprise approximately two full paragraphs):
1. In terms of the author?s perspective, what biases exist in this primary source and what does this reveal about the time period in which it was created?
2. How will you use this source to develop a unique answer to your research question?
This particular document is not very ?historical?, however it will be very useful in my resarch. There are not really any biases in this document other than, that it is very new. It reveals a lot about the time period we currently live in, such as minimum salaries for players and Bonus eligibility. It is quite obvious that it is a very modern document.

Although this document by it self might not seem so helpful, but when paired with older contracts and agreements with players, it will serve as a sort of measuring stick. I will use this contract agreement to study just how far baseball has come in terms of the promises it makes to its Latin American players. Are Latin players treated better today? If so how far have we come since the beginning of The recruitment of Latin born baseball players.

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