Important distinction between performance and learning

Unit 4

1. Tolman experience on______ called attention to the important distinction between performance and learning.


Experimental extinction

b) latent learning

c) stimulus generalization

d) cognitive maps


2) ______argued that the ability to navigate in a complex spatial environment results from the learning of a cognitive map

a) clark hull

b) B.F Skinner

c) Edwin Ray Guthrie

D) Edward chase tolman


3) which of the following topics provided the foundation for behaviorhal psychologies?

A)sensation  and perception

b) learning

c) imageless thought

d) experience|


4) _______preceded Watson in declaring that psychology should be a positive science concerned with conduct. However, because he championed so many unpopular causes (lamarckianism, extra sensory perception, teleology) his views were never widely accepted.

A) clark L. Hull

b) Albert Paul weiss

c) William Mcdougall

d) Edwin B holt


5) Which of the following would be most friendly to the study of molar behavior with a strong emphasis on the purpose qualities of behavior?

a) Albert Paul Weiss

b) B.F Skinner

c) Ivan Sechenov

d) Edwin B. Holt


6) the Gestalt system advanced by Wertheimer was :

a) concerned largely with applied psychology

b) limited essentially to the fields of thinking and perception

c) a worldview with implications for psychology, philosophy, science  and education.

d) Restricted to the field of philosophical psychology


7) some of Wertheimer views undoubtedly grew directly out of the physical theories set forth by :
a) Isaac Newton
b) Albert Einstein
c) Hermann von Helmholtz
d) Thomas hobbes

8) ______preceded Wertheimer in arguing that there are form qualities given immediately in experience and that form qualities may persist even when all the elements change.

A) Thomas Hobbes

B) christian von Ehrenfels

c) John Locke

d) James Mill


9) Isomorphism, in gestalt psychology, refers to structural correspondence between ____and ____
a) brain processes; behaviors
b) brain processes; experience
c) behaviors: experience
d) behaviors: environment


10) _______broadened the base of gestalt psychology into the fields of motivation, personality, and social psychology
a ) Kurt Koffka
b) kurt Goldstein
c) Rudolf ARnheim
d) Kurt lewin


11) Freud’s final theory of motivation emphasized

a) the sex drive alone

b) the centrality of eros broadly conceived

c) The opposition of erotic and aggressive instincts

d) power as much as sex.


12). the system of psychological thought advanced by Alfred Adler is known

A) analytic psychology

B) cognitive psychology

C) ego psychology

D)superego is too strong for the ego


13) Neurotic anxiety, according to Freud, may occur when the:

a) ego is threatened by the irrational forces of the id

b) ego is threatened by the irrational forces of the superego

c) ego superego is too strong for the ego


14) the ego-defense mechanism of attributing one’s own weaknesses to another is referred to as:




d) repression


15) in civilization and its discontents Freud argued that there are three great sources of pain and suffering, they are :

a)psychosis, neurosis, and physical disease

b)corrupt political systems, disease and mental illnesses

c) social injustice, war, and  illness


16) Humanistic psychologists were vocal in their criticism of
a) behaviorism and psychoanalysis
b) structuralism and functionalism
c) behaviorism and Gestalt psychology
d) gestalt psychology and psychoanalysis


17) According to Kierkegaard, the ____mode of _____is marked by a sensitivity to one’s contingency and complete dependence on GOD

A) aesthetic; existence

b) ethical; existence

c) religious; existence

d) neurotic; existence


18) Heidegger used the term _____to refer to those conditions or forces that do not yield easily to human effort.
A) Factuality
b) throwness
c) Dasein
d) mitwelt

19) According to psychologist Joseph F Rychlak, psychology should be built on the model of causality that
a) emphasizes correlation alone
b) focus on material and efficient causes exclusively
d) includes none of the above; Rychlak believes that causality is a philosophical term and, as such, has no place in science.


20) Basic human nature, according to third-force psychologies, is:

a) self-serving and animal-like

b) morally neutral

c) naturally growth oriented

d) sinful

21) according to the text, three classic schools of psychology continue to remain prominent today.

a) functionalism, neobehaviorism ,psychoanalysis

b) psychoanalysis ;gestalt psychology; neobehaviorism

c) functionalism; gestalt psychology; humanistic psychology

d) psychoanalysis; neobehaviorism, humanistic psychology


22) In the last century, many notable psychologist have laid the groundwork for the contemporary study of cognition. Each of the following thinkers influenced the development of cognitive psychology except:

a) Frederick c Barlett

b) Edward Chace Tolman

c) B.F skinner

d) Max Wertheimer



23) The term ecological validity refers to

a) The need for people to live in harmony with the earth
b) a sophisticated test of accuracy for intelligence score

c) The argument that psychology should focus on everyday, real problems that impact the lives of all people

D) the responsibility that each individual must assume for their personal lifestyle


24)  Which of the following events did not play a significant role in the extension of psychology to the legal system?

a) the trial of Daniel M’naughton

b) the use of psychological science by Louis D Brandeis to argue for better working

c) The use of psychological science in the desegregation case, brown v board of education

d) Theodore Roosevelt recognition of the work of Mary Parker Follett


25) Due to this person’s rigorous research in eyewitness testimony, the field of psychology and the law grew in size and surged in prominence.
a) Hugo Munsterberg
b) Walter Dill Scott
c) Marison Almira Bills
d) Elizabeth Loftus.

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