Nutrition

Nutrition
Complete Study Questions #1-9 Your answers must be typed in complete sentences unless the question is asking you to list or name a specific number. Also, Question #10 is the Big Idea: In a few sentences tell me something new you learned from the Chapter Reading/PPT.

NUTRITION LECTURE
INTRODUCTION
Lisa M. Murray, MS
FOODCHOICES
Personal Preference
Habit
Ethnic Heritage or Tradition
Social Interaction
Availability, Convenience, and
Economy
Positive and Negative
Associations
Emotional Comfort
Values
Image
Nutrition and Health Benefits
Sensory Influences: Taste,
Texture, Smell
WHY WE EAT WHAT WE
EAT?
What is a nutrient?
´ Absence from the diet results in a
specified health change
´ Putting the chemical back in the diet will
reverse the change in health
´ Not only chemicals found in foods
´ What about Phytochemical and
Antioxidants?
´What are these?
What about Non-Nutrients?
´ Fibers
´ Phytochemicals
´ Pigments
´ Additives
´ Alcohols
THE SIX CLASSES OF
NUTRIENTS
1. Water
2. Carbohydrates
3. Lipids
4. Proteins
5. Vitamins
6. Minerals
Nutrients in Foods and in The
Body
´ What is the composition of the human body?
´ Is it true? “We are what we eat?”
´ Chemical composition of nutrients includes both:
´ organic (those that contain carbon) and
´ inorganic (those that do not contain carbon)
compounds.
´ Essential nutrients: are those the body cannot
make or cannot make in sufficient quantities to
meet needs
´ Sometimes referred to as: Indispensable
nutrients
The Energy Yielding Nutrients
´ Macro vs. Micro?
´ What does Energy Yielding mean?
´ Energy is measured in Calories (calories, kilocalories,
kcalories, kcal)
´ Energy from food differs in energy density:
´ Macronutrients:
´ Carbohydrates: 4kcal/g
´ Protein: 4kcal/g
´ Fats: 9kcal/g
´ Alcohol: 7kcal/g Is this a nutrient?
PROBLEM SOLVING:
How many grams of fat were consumed if a person
received 405 kcalories from fat in a day?
45 grams(405 kcal/9kcal/g fat=45 g fat)
How many kcalories are in 13 grams of carbohydrates?
52 kcal (13 g carbs x 4 kcal/g carb = 52 kcal)
How many total kcalories are in 10 grams of carbohydrates, 4
grams of protein, 6 grams of fat and 7 grams of alcohol?
159 kcal (10 g carb x 4kcal/g + 4 g protein x 4 kcal/g + 6 g
fat x 9 kcal/g + 7 g alc x 7 kcal/g= 40+16+54+49=159kcal
PROBLEM SOLVING:
If a food item contains 20 grams of protein, how many
kcalories will be provided from protein?
20 g x 4= 80 kcalories from protein
Meal A provides 250 grams of protein and 40 grams of
fat. Meal B provides 250 grams of carbohydrate and 40
grams of fat. How many kcalories are provided by each
meal?
Meal A: 250 g protein x 4=1000 kcal; 40 g fat x 9=360 kcal;
1000+360=1360 kcal
Meal B: 250 g carb x 4=1000 kcal; 40g fat x 9=360 kcal; 1000 +
360=1360
They both have the same number of kcalories!

Introducing the Nutrients
´ Energy in Food
´ Be Food Smart: Calculate the Percentages of Calories in
Food

MICRONUTRIENTS: Vitamins
and Minerals
´ Vitamins are organic, nutrients that allow the body to
obtain energy from carbohydrate, fat and protein.
´ Minerals are inorganic, nutrients that are found in
bones, teeth, and body fluids.
´ Examples of Vitamins
´ Examples of Minerals
Water, Water Everywhere
´ You may be able to survive a long time without food,
vitamins, or minerals; however you would only last a
day or two without water
´ ½ to 2/3 of your body is made up of water
´ Solvent, lubricator, regulator of body temperature
´ Carries nutrients and wastes to and from cells
´ Aids in digestion and is necessary in all chemical
reactions in body metabolism
The Typical American Diet
´ How Healthful is the “American” Diet?
´ Too few nutrient dense foods
´ Too much of the foods known to be harmful

SCIENCE OF NUTRITION
´ The study of nutrients in foods and the body’s handling
of those nutrients.
´ Nutrition research uses different types of scientific
studies to answer questions about nutrition.
´ The scientific protocol is used in conducting research.
´ (tests) Hypotheses and (develops) theories
´ Information based on personal experience is known as
an anecdote
SCIENTIFIC PROCESS:
Research Terminology
Blind Experiment
Placebo Effect
Control Group
Variable
Replication
Correlation
Experimental Group
Validity
Subjects
Randomization
SCIENTIFIC PROCESS:
Analyzing Research Studies
Correlations and causes in experiments involve
studying variables and correlations, or relationships
between variables.
Positive Correlation
Negative Correlation
Conclusions
Peer Review
Validity: conclusions were supported by the findings
Replication: used to confirm or disprove findings
Nutritional Information and
Misinformation
Where do we read
about it?
Nutrition in the News
Can be misleading
May report findings
prematurely
What else?
Identifying Nutrition
Experts
Qualifications?
Dieticians have been
educated and trained in
nutrition
American Academy of
Nutrition and Dietetics
Recommends nutrition
education be a part of all
health care professionals’
curricula
Registered Dietician (RD)
is a qualified expert
Misinformation
´ “Satisfaction
guaranteed”
´ Quick and easy fixes
´ Natural
´ One product does it all
´ Time tested
´ Paranoid accusations
´ Personal testimonials
´ Meaningless medical
jargon
Nutrition Information:
Resources
www.eatright.org
Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
http://www.choosemyplate.gov
United States Department of Agriculture
http://health.gov/dietaryguidelines/2015/guidelines
Unites States Department of Agriculture
Use .org and .edu vs. .com websites for reputable
information!
Registered Dieticians
´ Maintain up to date registration
´ May use the title of Nutritionist
´ Many states require a license to practice. (LD)
´ Certified nutritionists, certified nutrition consultants,
and certified nutritional therapists do not have the
same credentials as an (RD)
´ Public health dieticians work for government funded
agencies
USDA 2015-2020 Dietary
Guidelines
´ The Guidelines:
´ Follow a healthy eating pattern across the lifespan. All food and beverage
choices matter. Choose a healthy eating pattern at an appropriate calorie
level to help achieve and maintain a healthy body weight, support nutrient
adequacy, and reduce the risk of chronic disease.
´ Focus on variety, nutrient density, and amount. To meet nutrient needs
within calorie limits, choose a variety of nutrient-dense foods across and
within all food groups in recommended amounts.
´ Limit calories from added sugars and saturated fats and reduce sodium
intake. Consume an eating pattern low in added sugars, saturated fats, and sodium. Cut back on foods and beverages higher in these
components to amounts that fit within healthy eating patterns.
´ Shift to healthier food and beverage choices. Choose nutrient-dense foods
and beverages across and within all food groups in place of less healthy
choices. Consider cultural and personal preferences to make these shifts
easier to accomplish and maintain.
´ Support healthy eating patterns for all. Everyone has a role in helping to
create and support healthy eating patterns in multiple settings nationwide,
from home to school to work to communities.

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