RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY IN QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH

PLEASE READ THE FOLLOWING 2 STUDENT RESPONSES AND RESPOND. CITE REFERENCES USING APA FORMAT. THESE ARE BOTH DUE BEFORE 11:59 ON SUNDAY AND CANNOT BE LATE. THAT IS EXACTLY 1 MINUTE BEFORE MIDNIGHT. THANK YOU KINDLY.

 

 

Mikelle Cruz

I/O Mikelle Cruz

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RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY IN QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH

Describe the variables used in the research and how they were measured. Describe any assessments that were used:

The quantitative research selected for this discussion paper is the Impact of Transactional, Transformational and Laissez – Fair Leadership Style on Motivation: A quantitative Study of Banking Employees in Pakistan (Zarreen, Razzaq, & Mujtaba, 2014). The variables used were transformational leadership, transactional leadership, laissez-fair leadership, and employee motivation. Questionnaires were used to measure these variables. An empirical analysis was performed. In one hand, central tendency and dispersion was used to describe and summarize the data. On the other, inferential statistics were conducted to determine whether a significant difference between the groups existed (Zarreen, Razzaq, & Mujtaba, 2014). As a result, this represents the variable used in the research and how they were measured.

Discuss the type of reliability that was reported for the measurement instrument (test – retest, inter-rater, parallel forms, split-half) and validity (content, construct, criterion):

Finding the impact of leadership styles on employee motivation was this study main purpose. The random sampling was comprised of full time (banking sector of Pakistan) managers and employees, who engaged in strong interactions on a daily basis. The selected articles illustrated that to verify the significance level of relationship for the acceptance or rejection of alternative hypotheses, a value of t-test was used. Cronbach’s Alpha (which gave a value more than 0.7) was used to demonstrate that the data for all the variables was reliable (Zarreen, Razzaq, & Mujtaba, 2014). The instrument validity was tested with a pilot study of 20 questionnaires. For instance, from a total of 130 questionnaires that were distributed, 109 were received back with a response rate of 84%. Additionally, 9 questionnaires were discarded because of improper filling and missing values (Zarreen, Razzaq, & Mujtaba, 2014). The software SPSS 17.0. was used for empirical analysis. Therefore, this represents the type of reliability and validity that were reported for the measurement instrument for the selected quantitative research.

Using your textbook and the quantitative validity article assigned in this unit’s studies, linked in Resources, construct an external validity checklist, noting how your selected article did address or could have addressed each issue:

Validity is related to whether the researchers conducted a statistical analysis and presented accurate conclusion about the findings. Research argues that construct validity is achieved when the variables used in a research are accurately defined and measured by the selected instrument (Leedy, & Ormrod, 2016). Scholars have held that an effective validity check list implies the existence of the following conditions: first, there must be a real-life environment. Second, the research outcomes should be relevant and applicable to real life events. Third, a true representative population sample must exist. Lastly, the research conclusions should be drawn in another research with different setting (Leedy, & Ormrod, 2016). The article selected real – life environment is the banking sector of Pakistan. The population sample were 20 non-managerial employees from five different commercial banks. The researcher’s concluded that since this study was performed in the banking sector of an emerging economy, in Pakistan, its findings are not necessarily applicable for developed economies in other countries. However, it provides a significant contribution to the specific banking sector of Pakistan, as all three-leadership style have a positive impact on employee motivation. Accordingly, this represents an external validity check list and how the selected article did address or could have addressed each issue.

Discuss how the reliability and validity of the research contribute to the scientific merit of the research:

Certainly, the reliability and validity of this article contribute to the scientific merit of the research. For example, the existences of a random sample, the used of a tested questionnaire to determine whether these three leadership styles have a positive impact on employee motivation, and the use of the software SPSS 17.0 to ensure an effective data description/inference was a critical factor to sustain the existences of scientific merits within this selected article. Researchers have revealed that expanding the current knowledge base, contributing to theory, and developing a valid and reliable research is the scientific merits main purpose (Leedy, & Ormrod, 2016). This study is meaningful to a scientific discipline, and its research design helped the researchers to answer the research question. Thus, this represents a brief discussion of how the reliability and validity of this selected article contribute to the scientific merit of the research.

 

Post the persistent link and DOIs guide, linked in Resources, to learn how to locate this information in the library databases:

The persistent link is as follows: http://library.capella.edu/login?url=https://search-proquest-com.library.capella.edu/docview/1732536572?accountid=27965

Cite all sources in APA style and provide an APA-formatted reference list at the end of your post.

Reference:

Leedy, P. D., & Ormrod, J. E. (2016). Practical research: Planning and design (11th Ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson. ISBN: 9780133741322.

Zareen, M., Razzaq, K., & Mujtaba, B. G. (2015;2014;). Impact of transactional, transformational and laissez-faire leadership styles on motivation: A quantitative study of banking employees in pakistan. Public Organization Review, 15 (4) , 531-549. doi:10.1007/s11115-014-0287-6

 

1 day ago

Dannyell Lewis-Montle

Unit 8 Discussion 2

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Unit 8 Discussion 2

Describe the type of data collected in the study and how it was collected.

The data was collected through interview. The researcher interviewed two professional art therapists and two child life specialists. The researcher reached out to the art therapists via email. The researcher wrote a letter to child life specialist to ask to interview them. “Audio recorded semi structured- qualitative interviews of pediatric art therapists and child life specialists. Each participant was invited to participate in a semi structured interview where they were asked to talk about their views on how they use expressive arts in the hospital setting with patients of various age groups, their experiences with expressive art practices, and specific art therapy techniques they use with individual pediatric patients” (O’Daly, 2016).

Discuss how the researchers established the dependability, or reliability, of the data.

The way the researcher established the dependability in the date was by “finding consistency and dependability with my data was done by creating an audit trail that documents the decisions made throughout the project, peer review, and my positionality on the topic” (O’Daly, 2016).

Discuss how the researchers established the credibility, or validity, of the data. Use the information from the qualitative validity article assigned in this unit’s studies, linked in Resources. Discuss how the credibility and dependability of the research contribute to the scientific merit of the research.

Researcher establish the credibility or validity, of data by, “ironic legitimation, paralogical legitimation, rhizomatic legitimation, voluptuous (i.e., embodied) legitimation, descriptive validity, structural corroboration, theoretical validity, observational bias, researcher bias, reactivity, confirmation bias, illusory correlation, causal error, and effect size” (Onwuegbuzie, 2007).

Post the persistent link for the article in your response. Refer to the Persistent Links and DOIs guide, linked in Resources, to learn how to locate this information in the library databases

https://capella.summon.serialssolutions.com/#!/search?bookMark=ePnHCXMw42JgAfZbU5kZuIC9H0sL0HlOhhxo3WdOhrmOCpBNg-DTrRUywev7MlPLFaBH3GQogE9XVUitSMwFX5SgkJFfrgDe36yQk5mWqlAMuZ0dGBTFColFqQqgfUYKJfkKkFUQQDNzKhUyc6FLsIHGQFaVAq0CRogCaMtAGfjAUqDNColAsyFXdCgUp4IXG3MzKLu5hjh76MJK53hoxBbHG1oYABsQwBICtM2HGFUAhw9bAg

Cite all sources in APA style and provide an APA-formatted reference list at the end of your post.

O’Daly, D. (2016). A qualitative interview research study examining how child life specialists are able to effectively implement expressive art activities in a hospital setting (Order No. 10118712). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. (1804419114). Retrieved from http://library.capella.edu/login?url=https://search-proquest-com.library.capella.edu/docview/1804419114?accountid=27965

 

Onwuegbuzie, A. J., & Leech, N. L. (2007). Validity and qualitative research: An oxymoron? Quality and Quantity, 41(2), 233-249. doi:http://dx.doi.org.library.capella.edu/10.1007/s11135-006-9000-3

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