research power point

research power point

please see attached first. attached is the research paper you will need to use to continue with this assignment.


The final research project presentation is an opportunity to present your finished Project to a supportive peer audience (Classmates) via discussion #2. The power point presentation (PPT) or Poster Board Template presentation should include the primary theory or claim you are defending, the bulk of the research upon which your position is based, and the major arguments that support it. You can utilize the information you have submitted within your assignment submissions for this course to complete your PPT.

There’s no required slide count for this discussion Make sure you address all criteria below for your initial discussion posting. Be Creative (include, photos, charts graphs, videos, etc). If you are going to use Prezi you must attach the PDF of your Prezi, no links are accepted for prezi presentations only PDF’s

1. Title = Project title, your name, panther ID, date

2. Abstract= A concise summary of the key points of your research. Your abstract should contain at least your research topic, research questions, participants, methods, results, data analysis, and conclusions. You may also include possible implications of your research and future work you see connected with your findings. Your abstract should be a single paragraph double-spaced. Your abstract should be between 150 and 250 words.

3. Briefly discuss the Problem Statement

4. List your research questions

5. Briefly discuss the Literature Review Concepts (No more than 1 paragraph)

6. Briefly discuss the Methods (No more than 1 paragraph)

7. Briefly discuss the Findings (No more than 1 paragraph)

8. Briefly discuss the Limitations (No more than 1 paragraph)

9. Conclusion ((No more than 1 paragraph)

10.List a minimum of Two (2) potential peer review Journals that your abstract/ manuscript may be published in (refer to chapters 34-36 from your course required textbook to get ideas).

11. References (Min. 5 References) APA format

A Research Proposal on the Models of Prenatal Care Populations in the New York City
Stephanie Coronado
HSA 4700

Literature review
This section contains the review of the literature on the models of prenatal care populations in the New York City. A literature review is an in-depth and a critical evaluation of previous research. It includes the current knowledge involving substantive findings and various contributions to a given topic. The literature review also provides a summary of a given study area which allows everyone who is reading the paper to ascertain why the researcher is pursuing that particular research area (Aveyard, 2014). Furthermore, it reveals any gaps that may be available in the literature and points the way to fulfill a need for any additional research. This particular section explores three concepts. They include: (i) Birth weight and gestational age are the integral outcomes of all prenatal care models. (ii) The current trend in prenatal care models. (iii) Existing gaps in the literature on antenatal care models.
Birth weight and gestational age
Gestational age and birth weight are the most important outcomes of all models of prenatal care. The goal of every pregnancy is always a positive prenatal outcome. According to Krans and Davis, (2014), both individual and group prenatal models help pregnant women to decrease risks that are associated with fetal results that are related to birth weight and gestational age through modifying their lifestyles. Alcohol, drugs and nicotine abstinence, exercising and healthy eating are some of the lifestyle modifications prenatal models help pregnant women to make. Preterm birth and low birth weight are the grave consequences (Grabowski et al. 2017). Antenatal care models have shifted their objectives to the prevention of low birth weight since it is quoted as one of the leading cause ofinfants’ death.
Pregnant adolescents present particular challenges when it comes to prenatal education. In most of the cases, health-care providers’ appointments often appear to conflict with their school schedules. Boulware, (2017) found a statistically considerable decrease in prematurity and low birth weight in infants who are born to teenagers who attended prenatal care. The decrease was in comparison to high mortality and low birth weight cases to teenagers who did not attend such programs. Nurses and other care providers should reflect on prenatal care models with the potential to produce better prenatal outcomes for all pregnant mothers, including teenagers (Hawley et al. 2014).
Studies on ethnic minority revealed that women involved in group prenatal care were considerably less prone to preterm birth than those in individual care (Borrel et al. 2016). Accordingly, another study on Hispanic women engaged in either individual or group prenatal care models found that there were similar birth weights among the infants born to them in both models. Besides, another study in a large public health clinic found no significant difference between individual and group care participants in mean gestational age and birth weight (Hawwley et al. 2014). From the studies, the group prenatal model significantly produces better outcomes in both gestational age and birth weight in comparison to the individual model; however, the difference is not big.
The current trends in prenatal care models
The present trend in parental care is towards a more patient-centered care like health care homes or medical homes. The focus of group prenatal care is in the patient and its curriculum motivated by patient needs. The group prenatal care has the capability of reducing paternalism by tightening provider-patience relationship through trust and partnering (Krans & Davis, 2014). However, partnering in care is a recent concept in health care provision. The manner in which patients are taught, over time, it has changed (Borrel et al. 2016). Past education was process-oriented, but the current one is content-driven and growing. For instance, in individual prenatal care model, a group of strong standards is adhered to base on gestation.
Besides, group prenatal care model might follow a related curriculum. However, the facilitator of a group care can tailor the curriculum based on the feedback elicited by the partaker at the beginning of every class. The group prenatal, care model is harmonious to the organizations aimed at promoting healthy pregnancies like Lamaze International (Bowlware et al. 2017). The design achieves the congruent through providing evidence-based childbirth education to educators, parents and care providers with common goals of realizing real infant and maternal outcomes.
Group prenatal care model is gaining popularity. Visits to health care providers are becoming shorter due to expectations in productivity and containment of costs. One of the upcoming models of group prenatal care is the one developed by a certified midwife and nurse known as Centering Pregnancy. The design incorporates particular components of prenatal care like education, risk assessment and support (Grabowski et al. 2017). Nurses are increasingly engaging in prenatal education through the use of group prenatal care model. Traditionally, for more than fifty years, nurses have always been at the core of classes for childbirth initially formed to prepare mothers for labor and delivery.
A 2013 survey revealed that mothers were less exposed to childbirth education classes through prenatal care models as compared to media. Technology has impacted heavily on childbirth education landscape as well as how health education is received by patients (Bouwlware, 2017). However, increasing group prenatal care aims at improving women’s inclusion in prenatal care experiences as well as to offer them opportunities to share with others their pregnancy and childbirth experiences. Interactive computer-based prenatal instruction is also increasing in different clinics.
Gaps in the literature on prenatal care models
The existing literature has focused more studies on comparing the prenatal outcomes between group prenatal attention and individual (traditional) prenatal care. Additionally, most studies have focused on extensively studying a particula group prenatal care model, that is, Centering Pregnancy (Borrel et al. 2016). As a result, the outcome results may tend to be generalized solely to prenatal programs choosing to implement this model. Could there be other prenatal group care models?
The other gap in the literature could be missing evidence to describe how the antenatal care models provide their outcomes. For instance, why do women who undergo through group prenatal care model have longer gestations and larger babies? Does particular content produce better results? The available research studies have majored on prenatal care standards themselves, but not specific aspects that could influence specific outcomes.
Furthermore, more recent studies have focused on exploring the antenatal care model as compared to the individual model. The studies reveal that the group prenatal care model is gaining more popularity in comparison to the traditional (different) model (Krans & Davis, 2014). Could the unique care model be on the rise? The advancements in technology have resulted to the interactive computer-based prenatal instruction which may give more room to the individual prenatal care model than the group design. Could it be possible that group prenatal care model is decreasing in reality?
Aveyard, H. (2014). Doing a literature review in health and social care: A practical guide. McGraw-Hill Education (UK).
Boulware, D. R. (2017). Recent Increases in the US Maternal Mortality Rate: Disentangling Trends From Measurement Issues. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 129(2), 385-386.
Borrell, L. N., Rodriguez-Alvarez, E., Savitz, D. A., & Baquero, M. C. (2016). Parental race/ethnicity and adverse birth outcomes in New York City: 2000–2010. American journal of public health, 106(8), 1491-1497.
Grabowski, D. C., Elliot, A., Leitzell, B., Cohen, L. W., & Zimmerman, S. (2014). Who are the innovators? Nursing homes implementing culture change. The Gerontologist, 54(Suppl 1), S65-S75.
Hawley, N. L., Brown, C., Nu’usolia, O., Ah-Ching, J., Muasau-Howard, B., & McGarvey, S. T. (2014). Barriers to adequate prenatal care utilization in American Samoa. Maternal and child health journal, 18(10), 2284-2292.
Krans, E. E., & Davis, M. M. (2014). Strong Start for Mothers and Newborns: implications for prenatal care delivery. Current opinion in obstetrics & gynecology, 26(6), 511.
A Research Proposal on the Model of Prenatal Care Populations in the New York City
Student name
Panther ID

Florida International University
February 2017
This section discusses the methodology used in studying the various models of prenatal care populations in the New York City. This research proposal used a Quantitative descriptive research method. The first part will describe the differences that exist in the various research methodologies. Second, it will elaborate on the appropriateness of the research methodology intended for this study. Third, it will discuss the study population, develop in the sampling frame; present collection as well as the process used in analyzing data and how it can be used.
Research method and design appropriateness
Methods of undertaking research are many. However, differences exist among them. An experimental analysis method involves the practice of manipulating some subjects (independent variables) of the study to produce statistically analyzable data. On the other hand, opinion based research methods like questionnaires involve designing of experiments and collecting quantifiable data (Flick, 2015). However, observational research methods like case study include the observation of a phenomenon without necessarily interfering too much.
Qualitative research methods involve in-depth interviews, focus groups and document views for types of themes. On the other hand, quantitative methods include structured interviews, surveys, observations and reviews of documents, records of even material, especially for numeric information. Furthermore, quantitative methods are more objective in that; they provide observed effects (usually researcher-interpreted) of a program on a condition or problem (Crewell, 2013). However, qualitative methods are more subjective and describe a situation or problem from the ones experiencing it. In this study, a Quantitative method was the most appropriate. The method provides for statistical tests in analysis and also a full span of information across a big number of cases.
The larger population for this study was the New York state of the United States of America. New York was arrived at due to the increased prenatal care in the country with an average 66% early prenatal care and 8.4% late or no prenatal care for all ages (Health.ny.go. 2017). The data is according to a 2014 New York State Department of Health statistics. The state is the fourth most populous, the 27th most extensive and the seventh most densely populated among the 50 united states of America. It has a population of 19,746,227 according to the July 2014 United States population statistics. In the past ten years, the State of Ney York has recorded decreased infant mortality by more than 34.3%, taking the state to 9th from 32nd position. Over the same period, the decline was 21.7% nationally. The state has also developed and implemented several programs aimed at increasing per-natal and prenatal care access. Approximately, about 100 birthing hospital in the New York State is presently participating in either one or more of the Ney York State Quality Collaborative program.
The study further reduced the population to cover only nursing homes in New York City. The city recorded an average of 63% early prenatal care and 10.4% late or no prenatal care. The city is the most populous, not only in New York State but also in the entire United States. As of 2015, it was estimated to have a population of 8,550,405 ( 2017). New York City is the largest natural harbors in the world. The city covers about 790-kilometer squares of land area and serves as the center for commerce, media, finance, fashion, art technology, education, research as well as entertainment.
Sampling frame
The target population for this research was pregnant women attending prenatal care classes in the New York City nursing homes. The sample nursing homes in the New York City were selected through the use of purposive non-probability sampling with the intention of getting nursing homes offering prenatal care. Through this method, the following eight nursing homes were chosen: Resort Nursing Home; Horizon Care Center; Lawrence Nursing Care Center; Lacona Nursing Home; Gold Crest care Center; Regeis Care Center; Casa Promesa; and Oxford Nursing Home (Grabowski et al. 2017). However, random probability method was used to select pregnant women involved in prenatal care classes in the three clinics. The eligible women to participate were those with less than twenty-five months gestation during the selection, and receiving prenatal care in any of the nursing homes. Approximately, 385 women were selected for the study. The sample included expectant mothers of all ages.
Data collection
For this study, mailed questionnaires were used to collect data. Questionnaires are quantitative methods of data collection. It was useful since it helps quantify people’s attitudes and behaviors. Furthermore, polls are considerably cheap, efficient and quick way of obtaining useful amounts of data from a large population sample ( 2017). The collection of data is also fast since the researcher does not need to be present while the questionnaires are being completed.
Questionnaires were mailed to three groups of pregnant women. That is early pregnancy (less than 25 weeks gestation; 5 months postpartum, and between 28 and 34 weeks gestation. Participants who were eligible and could understand the English language. Among the 385 pregnant women selected for the study, 87% filled at least one questionnaire. Some of the questions raised in the questionnaires were on demographic factors like age, history of pregnancy. Additionally, other issues like the most preferred prenatal care model (either individual or group) and the pregnancy stage at which they started attending prenatal classes. For integrity protection purposes, the participants were at will to fill the questions they felt comfortable answering. Personal information such as name and address was also kept confidential (Flick, 2015).
Data analysis
Percentages and frequencies were calculated for categorical variables and standard deviation and means (or inter-quartile range and medians) for any constant variables. Analysis of the differences between the three groups was done using chi-squire test for categorical variables. At five moths’ postpartum, infant health, breastfeeding, and feeding data was collected, to be used as a community resource (Meeker Escobar, 2014). Health behaviors were evaluated by measuring consumption of alcohol and nutrition of the mother as well as maternal practices and intentions around child health.
Flick, U. (2015). Introducing research methodology: A beginner’s guide to doing a research project. Sage.
Creswell, J. W. (2013). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. Sage publications.,. (2017). Sampling Methods for Quantitative Research – Center for Innovation in Research and Teaching. Retrieved 2 February 2017, from
Grabowski, D. C., Elliot, A., Leitzell, B., Cohen, L. W., & Zimmerman, S. (2014). Who are the innovators? Nursing homes implementing culture change. The Gerontologist, 54(Suppl 1), S65-S75.,. (2017). Table 12a: Percent Early and Late or No Prenatal Care, Age and Resident County New York State – 2014. Retrieved 2 February 2017, from
Meeker, W. Q., & Escobar, L. A. (2014). Statistical methods for reliability data. John Wiley & Sons.

A Research Proposal on the Model of Prenatal Care Populations in the New York City
Student name
Panther ID
Florida International University
February 2017
This section describes the models of prenatal populations in use in the New York City. The part will discuss the limitations of the study, the possible use, and applications of the as well as the recommendations of the research. The median number of group prenatal care class sessions attended by pregnant women was 8. However, the median number of the individual antenatal care session attendance was 5. Participants in both individual prenatal care and participants in group prenatal care varied significantly with maternal age but showed no deferent on marital status. Pregnant mothers below the age of 25 were few as compared to the rest (Borrell et al. 2016).
One of the limitations was time and data validity. Arranging for the different research requirements including identification of the stable target population took much time. Although mailed questionnaires were used to collect the data, most of the participants took longer than expected to complete them. Additionally, some participants gave information that could not be understood. Funding also presented another problem in the first processes of the study. Trying to reach the various members in the eight nursing homes was not easy. Additionally, researching for the information also required additional expenses (Hawley et al. 2014).
Use and application of Findings
The results obtained from this study can be utilized by the Ney York State Department of health in carrying out more research to fill in the gaps identified on prenatal care models. Furthermore, the study can be used to help nursing homes establish more programs and policies to encourage young mothers to attend prenatal care sessions. This paper can also be used by future researchers on health matter to provide them with any reliable information.
Recommendation 1: The health care providers should come up with more prenatal care models to supplement the current two models. For instance, the interactive computer-based model can be very efficient and convenient to pregnant women. Some women may not be in a position to attend prenatal care classes due to their busy lives. Thus, a computer-based care model can enable them to get the necessary care without having to visit the nursing homes on every occasion (Bernades et al. 2014).
Recommendation 2: the government needs to create awareness through the various communication medium on the importance of prenatal care and education. Lack of knowledge includes the reasons as to why some mothers are not attending prenatal care classes (Rochman & Rochman, 2017). Seeking health education and receiving the necessary care can help improve the health of both the mother and the child. Furthermore, it reduces maternal death and infant mortality.
Recommendation 3: fathers should be encouraged to accompany their wives to prenatal care classes. Leaving dads out of the prenatal care program could damage the family. Though indirectly, the fathers too can contribute to infant health. Usually, most women rely on their husbands for support in various matters. Expectant mothers are associated with stress, anxiety and other psychological problems (Rochman & Rochman, 2017). Thus, they need someone closer to them, someone, who understands them better, to be on their side during prenatal care classes.
Models of prenatal care populations that are in use are group and individual (traditional) models. Group prenatal care model is currently the most practiced and is still gaining more momentum. However, a new model is coming up due to technological advancements and the ever increasing tight life schedules. Interactive computer-based prenatal care is on the rise. In addition to this, some pregnant women prefer mass media to get their prenatal education. However, mass media cannot offer sufficient information as compared to a face to face meeting with a health provider. The doctor can perform both psychological as well as physical examination and provide the necessary, treated or advice depending on the particular individual.
Furthermore, prenatal care and education at nursing homes enable the mothers to meet with others and share their gestation experiences, especially in the case of group model. The primary goals of every prenatal care program are improved mother and infant health. Gestation age and birth weight also serve as primary targets of the antenatal care models. Preventing cases of maternal death and infant mortality serves as a motivation factors for the health providers. According to World Health Organization 2015 report, about 830 women died each day from complications related to childbirth and pregnancy.The various health programs available, such as prenatal care have been very effective in addressing pregnancy-related problems. Over the last ten years, the State of New York, for instance, has recorded decreased infant mortality by more than 34.3%, taking the state to 9th from 32nd position. Over the same period, the decline was 21.7% in the entire United States (Borrell et al. 2016). Other nations too, such those in the developing countries, can achieve such improvements if awareness is created. All models of prenatal care can be effective in making this, if planned and implemented well.
Bernardes, A. C. F., da Silva, R. A., Coimbra, L. C., de Britto, M. T. S. S., de Sousa Queiroz, R. C., Batista, R. F. L., … & da Silva, A. A. M. (2014). Inadequate prenatal care utilization and associated factors in São Luís, Brazil. BMC pregnancy and childbirth, 14(1), 266.
Borrell, L. N., Rodriguez-Alvarez, E., Savitz, D. A., & Baquero, M. C. (2016). Parental race/ethnicity and adverse birth outcomes in New York City: 2000–2010. American journal of public health, 106(8), 1491-1497.
Hawley, N. L., Brown, C., Nu’usolia, O., Ah-Ching, J., Muasau-Howard, B., & McGarvey, S. T. (2014). Barriers to adequate prenatal care utilization in American Samoa. Maternal and child health journal, 18(10), 2284-2292.
Rochman, B. & Rochman, B. (2017). Should Prenatal Care Be Extended to Dads? | Retrieved 2 February 2017, from

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