The Impact of Diabetes

The Impact of Diabetes
Contents
TASK A: Qualitative Research 4
Name the specific method of data collection used to explore the perceptions and experiences of diabetes-related stigma from the perspective of adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus? 4
Based on the description of the methodology used please indicate the type of qualitative study design employed in this study and briefly justify your selection. 4
Using bullet points briefly summarise the analysis process outlined in the section ‘Transcription and analysis’. (Remember to paraphrase this information in your own words so as to demonstrate your understanding—direct quotes are not appropriate for this assignment). 4
Please identify which theme the statement most appropriately fits into: 5
i. “I just need to remind myself that maybe they don’t know the difference? It’s just tiring being constantly compared to that stereotype” 5
ii. “I’ve always felt the need to hide it until I knew that I could trust that individual, that somehow it’s a source of weakness” 5
iii. “I find that a lot of people like to think of you as being the culprit, that you’ve brought this upon yourself” 6
iv. “I can’t help but blame the news media’s portrayal of diabetes; the sensationalist headlines, the lack of differentiation, the inaccuracy of their reporting 6
TASK C: Quantitative Research Statistics 6
Based on the description of the sampling process outlined in Chapter 9 please: 6
i. State whether probability or non-probability sampling was used. 6
ii. Name the specific type of sampling method used and describe how it was carried out for this research project. 6
Provide a description of the annual incidence (percentage of new cases per year) of diabetes as shown 6
Describe the trend in “Annual incidence of diabetes according to baseline age” 7
Describe the trend in “Annual incidence of diabetes according to baseline glucose tolerance status”. 7
“Men are at greater risk than women of developing diabetes across a range of risk factors” 8
Please form a statement which outlines what this confidence interval means 8
Which age group (i.e. 25–34) experienced the highest annual incident rate of diabetes? 8
Provide the relevant odds ratio values and state in your own words how you know the odds are lower for the quintile(s) you selected 8
Briefly outline how the assessment tasks and learning resources you have completed to date 9
Reference 9

TASK A: Qualitative Research
Name the specific method of data collection used to explore the perceptions and experiences of diabetes-related stigma from the perspective of adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus?
The study of ‘I’m not a druggie, I’m just a diabetic’: a study of stigma from the perspective of adults with type 1 diabetes by Browne, et al (2014) makes use of qualitative research study by making use ofsemi structured interviews, which were audio recorded, transcribed and subject to thematic analysis.
Based on the description of the methodology used please indicate the type of qualitative study design employed in this study and briefly justify your selection.
The authors made use of a semi structured interview schedule since it brought them success in their previous research conducted with individuals with T2DM (I call it the blame and shame disease’: a qualitative study about perceptions of social stigma surrounding type 2 diabetes). The schedule duly was designed in such a way that it allowed the researchers to elicit the participants’ personal narratives or their experiences or their perceived notions of the stigma that was associated with diabetes. Here the participants were invited to participate voluntarily so that they may come forward with their individual social experience of living with T1DM. They included a range of surroundings such as healthcare settings, the workplace, their social and/or family environments andthe media. Also the researchers were careful about how they referred or introduced the word stigma to avoid confusing the participants with terminology. It also helped reduce bias. This is considered the best approach for this research since this method maximized the opportunity for the participants to come forward and talk about their positive and negative social experiences.
Using bullet points briefly summarise the analysis process outlined in the section ‘Transcription and analysis’. (Remember to paraphrase this information in your own words so as to demonstrate your understanding—direct quotes are not appropriate for this assignment).
• The researcher made use of a professional transcription servicefor transcribing the audio recording verbatim. Thematic analysis using the inductive approach was chosen for analyzing the collected data.
• The data was rechecked to determine accuracy before being transferred to NVivo V.10 to ensue analysis and data coding since it would include very detailed definitions and rules of coding which would be independently piloted on the interviews.
• A draft framework was created and looked at by the entire research team, and altered synergistically to enhance utility and fathomability.
• JLB and AV utilized the revised framework to code three transcripts and after that coded an extra five transcripts autonomously.
• An intercoder agreement for every code was dictated
• five transcripts achieved a mean agreement rating of 99.0% which showed a level of consistency in the rate of coding
• All discrepancies were tackled with the help of group discussion raising the success rate to 100%
Please identify which theme the statement most appropriately fits into:
i. “I just need to remind myself that maybe they don’t know the difference? It’s just tiring being constantly compared to that stereotype”
Negative social judgments and stereotyping
ii. “I’ve always felt the need to hide it until I knew that I could trust that individual, that somehow it’s a source of weakness”
Non disclosure

iii. “I find that a lot of people like to think of you as being the culprit, that you’ve brought this upon yourself”
Exclusion, rejection and discrimination
iv. “I can’t help but blame the news media’s portrayal of diabetes; the sensationalist headlines, the lack of differentiation, the inaccuracy of their reporting
Role of the media: myths and misconceptions
TASK C: Quantitative Research Statistics
Based on the description of the sampling process outlined in Chapter 9 please:
i. State whether probability or non-probability sampling was used.
The probability sampling was used in this study.
ii. Name the specific type of sampling method used and describe how it was carried out for this research project.
The specific type of sampling method used here is the cluster probabilistic sampling. In this forms of sampling the researcher first decides upon a cluster range and the participants in the cluster get selected by a random or systematic random sampling method(Cochran, 1977). As seen in the study,the researcher clustered the participants who are 25 years old from randomly selected urban and rural areas which is how a clustered sampling is done.
Provide a description of the annual incidence (percentage of new cases per year) of diabetes as shown
The annual incidence of diabetes as per the chart shows that the percentage of women diagnosed with diabetes is higher with 0.6% as compared to men whose numbers are 0.8%.
Describe the trend in “Annual incidence of diabetes according to baseline age”
Age Men Women All
25-34 0.3 0.3 0.3
35-44 0.4 0.2 0.3
45-54 0.7 0.7 0.7
55-64 1.3 0.6 0.9
65-74 1.3 1.3 1.3
75+ 0.8 1.0 0.9

25-34 : the % of incidence is the same for men and women
35-44: there is an increase of incidence for men and a slight decrease for women.
45-54: there is a considerable increase for both men and women
55-64: there is a major increase for men while a slight increase for women
65-74: there is no increase for the men while there is a considerable increase for women.
75+: there is a considerable decrease of incidence for men and a slight decrease for women.
As per the given figures it may be stated that the annual incidence of diabetes when it comes to men showed a gradual increase till the age of 55 where it seemed to remain stagnant for the next 20 years. It was again after the age of 75 that the rate ofincidence began to decline. For women similar incidence and increase of diabetes is shown with increasing age and there is a peak in the incidence noticed at the age bracket of 65-74 years. They also show a decrease in incidence of diabetes after the age of 75.
Describe the trend in “Annual incidence of diabetes according to baseline glucose tolerance status”.
The baseline glucose tolerance is categorized as NGT IFG and IGT. In comparison to NGT which shows 0.3% for men and 0.2% for women, the IFG levels are 7 times higher with 2,0% for men and 2.8% for women. The data shows that IGT status was the highest with 3.5% for men and 2.6% for women.
“Men are at greater risk than women of developing diabetes across a range of risk factors” The overall summation of the three graphs does show that on an average the incidence level of diabetes remains higher for men as compared to that of women, thus the above statement is true.

Please form a statement which outlines what this confidence interval means
i. Confidence intervals provide the researcher with as estimate of the range of values that has the highest probability to include unknown parameters to population(McColl H and Easton J, 2001). This estimated range in the study is calculated from the chosen sample data of the study.
ii. It means that if the researcher uses the sample for more than one occasion, and the interval estimates are also made every time then the resultant intervals would show the bracket of the correct population parameter for 95% of the cases (Itl.nist, 2010).
Which age group (i.e. 25–34) experienced the highest annual incident rate of diabetes?
Age group 65-74 has the highest incidence with the total numbers being 4.0%

Provide the relevant odds ratio values and state in your own words how you know the odds are lower for the quintile(s) you selected
The quintiles in decreasing order are 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 5th quintile. This is because of the fact that the odd rates keep decreasing as the quintiles lower with the number being 0.8, 0.7, 0.6 and 0.5 with the gradual descend.

Briefly outline how the assessment tasks and learning resources you have completed to date
(to be filled later)

Reference
Browne, J., Ventura, A., Mosely, K. and Speight, J. (2013). ‘I call it the blame and shame disease’: a qualitative study about perceptions of social stigma surrounding type 2 diabetes. BMJ Open, 3(11), pp.e003384-e003384.
Cochran, W. (1977). Sampling techniques. New York: Wiley.
Itl.nist.gov, (2010). 7.1.4. What are confidence intervals?. [online] Available at: http://www.itl.nist.gov/div898/handbook/prc/section1/prc14.htm [Accessed 20 Aug. 2015].
McColl H, J. and Easton J, V. (2001). Statistics Glossary.

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