There are those requirements for each question.

There are those requirements for each question.
General Caveat: Be scholarly
For the most part the practice of history requires scholarly or professional work. You should develop the habit of writing in a way that shows the kind of sophistication that would be expected in the workplace. You should write as though the work will be read by your employer, your customers, your clients, or any other constituents. It should be well-presented and refined.
For this class, you may use any stylebook you wish (e.g., MLA, APA, Chicago,) but note that you must cite sources as called for in Point 3b below. Third person is required for all written work, except for the “Show Empathy” questions that ask you to “Comment

STANDARDS:
To meet the standard for this tool the work must:
£ Include few errors of grammar, punctuation, and spelling.
£ Use scholarly/professionalconventions of style and language.
£ Follow formatting rules precisely.
£ Use third person voice for all written work, except for the “Show Empathy” questions.
To exceed the standard for this tool the work must meet the criteria above and do the following:
£ Show sophistication and maturity in writing mechanics, language, and usage.

Organize Effectively (For the Final Essay)
Historical writing is best organized historically. That is, longer works should be in a chronological form. While a topical organization is often used by historians, for this class you should arrange the body of your essay in order of time, from the earliest period studied in the class to the most recent. In your essay, after stating your thesis in the opening paragraph, you should move, one-by-one, through the chronological period addressed in the course, showing balanced coverage across the entire period. Avoid giving too much coverage to one period at the expense of another.
Begin parts of your essay with a brief characterization of that chronological period in order to situate that part in its historical context, indicating the particular historical environment of the point you are making. Be clear about the period of time you are addressing. You might use descriptors, such as “colonial period” or “Civil War era.” Dates also can be used, as in “the early-1800s” or “between 1776 and 1800.”

STANDARDS:
To meet the standard for this tool the work must:
£ Be organized chronologically.
£ Address the overall period in a balanced way.
£ Account for each of the sub-periods addressed in the course.
To exceed the standard for this tool the work must meet the criteria above and do the following:
£ Move smoothly from point to point in a sophisticated narrative with clear transitions.
£ Provide a clear, concise characterization for each sub-period.

Tool 1.Understand the Past
In order to make use of the past you must be able to characterize, contextualize, and elaborate historical periods. This process allows you to “set the stage” in which people of the past experienced the world. It gives you a sense of the historical contexts that influenced how the past played out. It gives you an understanding of how we are all influenced by the social environment in which we live..
In this class you are provided with broad overview essays that set out the historical context and important features that give the period its historical substance. By analyzing the overview essays you should be able to create a clear picture in your own mind of the period in question as a coherent whole. While this is somewhat of an artificial conceptualization, it gives you a way to remember the context in which the past played out. You should review each essay until you understand the author’s view of the period.

STANDARDS
To meet the standard for this tool the work must:
£ Summarize the distinctive nature and general contours of the period.
£ Describe the social, cultural, economic, and political context.
£ Note people, ideas, movements, events, and other factors that played out in the period.
£ Be sufficiently developed to convey understanding of the past.
To exceed the standard for this tool the work must meet the criteria above and do one or more of the following:
£ Show a thoughtful and complex understanding of the past.
£ Be well-developed. Go beyond a basic level of elaboration.

Example of an explanation to show understanding of a historical period, based on a secondary source essay.
In the half century after the end of Reconstruction, the United States became increasingly modern in its technology, economy, and politics. It was a “Gilded Age” in which the country’s “outward wealth and dazzle” contrasted with “inner corruption and poverty,” according to historian Richard White. The country set about integrating the West through government action intended to develop the vast agricultural potential of the region while dealing with the Indians through suppression and integration. White notes that this was not only a tragedy for the plains Indians, but it was a “paradox” in which farmers became more productive in the new vast lands of the West, but also saw their share of the economy decline over the period. However, for White, the “greatest changes of the period” were the rise of industry, the growth of wage labor, and urbanization. The economy reflected these changes such that by the turn of the century the United States produced half of the world’s industrial output. The industrial growth was accompanied by social changes as immigrants came from abroad and industrial workers flocked to the cities in search of jobs. Immigrants began to give the country its diverse and cosmopolitan character as they formed enclaves in many cities, but they also experienced discrimination and restriction. Americans found jobs in the growing factories, but faced a grim existence as the work often was unhealthful and dangerous. Reformers set out to resolve the country’s problems as growing labor organization clashed with the growing power of industrial capital. Historical factors that Rodgers sets out as important include:
-The end of Reconstruction enshrined repression and segregation in the South for African Americans.
-The Dawes Act of 1887 redistributed western lands from Indians to white Americans.
-Chinese Exclusion Act of 1883 represented growing conflict between “native” Americans and new immigrants.
-Railroads increased to 161,000 miles, consumed massive quantities of steel, and employed hundreds of thousands.
-Workers reacted against the grim conditions of industrial work in strikes such as the Great Railroad Strike of 1877
-While industrial growth continued, it was uneven and did not spread across all sectors of the economy.
-Horatio Alger wrote novels that tried to reconcile the new economy with the old values of individualism.
-Groups such as the “antimonopolists” and Populists emerged to oppose the growing aggregation of business.
-Thomas Edison was a symbol of the new focus on technology and invention.
-John D. Rockefeller represented the vast wealth and growing power of business conglomerates.
-The country’s new power manifested itself in the Spanish-American War of 1898.
Tool 2. Understand Sources
Understanding what people believe or felt about the past , or experienced themselves in the past, helps us recognize the contingent nature of history. Everything we know about the past is mediated by those who have studied it or lived in it. There are two types of sources:

a.Secondary Sources: Our understanding of the past is contingent upon the interpretations of historians who have examined the past record and synthesized the evidence into an essay or some other output that reflects their view. Secondary sources are the accounts produced by historians or other scholars, generally long after the events have taken place. You must be able to clearly identify, summarize, and express their viewpoint. This is not the author’s subject or topic, but what he or she believes about the topic. What is his or her claim about the topic? Generally you can summarize this viewpoint in much the same form as you would express your own argument in a thesis or premise, as shown in Rule 3a below—being sure to clearly identify the author or authors.

STANDARDS FOR Tool 2a
To meet the standard for this tool the work must:
£ Show a basic understanding of the author’s basic viewpoint.
To exceed the standard for this tool the work must meet the criteria above and do one or more of the following:
£ Clearly and precisely identify, summarize, and express the author’s viewpoint.

b.Primary Sources: Our understanding of the past is based largely on the original sources of those who lived at the time in question. Primary sources are original letters, photographs, works of art, interviews, printed accounts, official records, statistics, or other material produced at the time to which they refer or by those who witnessed the events of the time. Primary sources are often autobiographies or memoirs produced by people who lived the events they describe, even when they were created later. To understand a primary source you must both analyze it and evaluate its value as evidence. You must be able to read and penetrate the language of people who may not speak as you do. What do they mean? What is their viewpoint? How do the times in which they were produced impact the creation of the source? How do they relate to the present day? What questions about history and about the present day can you answer using this source?

STANDARDS FOR Tool 2b
To meet the standard for this tool the work must:
£ Properly identify and cite the source(s).
£ Generally summarize and express the meaning of the source(s).
To exceed the standard for this tool the work must meet the criteria above and do one or more of the following:
£ Show a clear sense of the historical context for the source(s).
£ Indicates the questions about history and the present day can this source address.

Example of a brief coherent examination of a primary source.
Thomas Edison linked his invention “factory” to the need of the new business enterprises of the time. In an 1877 letter to the head of Western Union Telegraph, Edison asked the company for $40,000 that would allow for the creation of “unusual facilities” for “perfecting any kind of Telegraphic invention.” Clearly, Edison reflected a time when the country was seeking to advance itself technologically. While he aims to secure funding for his work, he shows that he has the entrepreneurial spirit that characterized the spirit of the late-nineteenth century. His use of the term “factory” gives the source its tie to the industrial revolution that was then underway in the United States, and, consequently, this source is useful in understanding the industrial expansion of the times. It also addresses the way society approaches technology today, not only as a tool, but as a way to achieve wealth and fame. Edison, like Bill Gates, Steve Jobs, and other entrepreneurs advanced technology, built corporations, and made millions.
Tool 3. Use History
As noted in the introduction, history is something that we can use to access and take advantage of the vast database of useful information that is the best. But it must be done properly with focus, coherence, and effectively-applied evidence.

a. Be focused and coherent. The first few sentences of any written work constitute your thesis or main premise that introduces or summarizes the work. It may characterize a historical period, set up a paragraph topic, or summarize a larger historical essay. It represents your main argument, explanation, or interpretation. The first few sentences is what gives your work coherence, or holds it together. The thesis should be clear, focused, and complex. Avoid beginning with general, vague, or superficial statements. Short declarative sentences will often be insufficient to summarize complex topics. Avoid writing such that it sounds like you are answering a question. Write as though the work would stand alone without reference to vague descriptors such as “this chapter” or “these sources.” If you are responding to a question, don’t repeat the assumptions or terms of the question, but summarize the overall explanation that will be developed in the body of the paragraph or essay. The opening statement for a paragraph may require only a sentence, while an essay may need three or four sentences. A typical thesis for this course should be 30 to 75 words, depending upon the writing task.

STANDARDS
To meet the standard for this tool the work must:
£ Begin with a statement that is clear and focused.
£ Generally hold together and flow directly from point to point.
To exceed the standard for this tool the work must meet the criteria above and do one or more of the following:
£ Begin with a statement that is complex.
£ Show thoughtfulness, insight, and/or originality.

Here is an example of a premise or thesis:
Although there was a great disparity between rich and poor, the technological innovations of the late- nineteenth century thrust the United States into the age of industry, urban life, and modernity. Invention and scientific advances came to be applied to industrial work, spawning new approaches, economic expansion, and innovative solutions to factory problems.

b. Use Evidence: Generally, history is based on evidence. You will use this information from and about the past to make a case, defend a claim, support an argument, illustrate an explanation. Evidence Selection: You must always be careful to choose evidence that supports the argument or interpretation that you expressed in your thesis. Its connection to the thesis must be made clear to the reader. When directed to do so in this class you should use the provided sources directly and explicitly. You should use both primary and secondary sources to give clarity and richness in the support for your view. While both primary and secondary sources are essential and effective, you should look for opportunities to use primary sources as they are the basis for all good historical interpretation. Evidence Identification and Citation: Evidence that effectively supports the thesis must be identified and properly cited. You must clearly identify the sources you use as part of a sentence, as shown in the examples below. At a minimum you should cite the author, give some clear time reference, and add other identifying points added as necessary. When making a second reference to an author always use his or her last name. Parenthetic citations or footnotes are not required. Evidence Quotation: Quotations from sources, integrated carefully within your own sentences, are essential for good historical writing. Quotations are effective tools for conveying authority and power to your writing. The quotation should be used to strengthen YOUR explanation, analysis, or interpretation, but should not be used to convey undigested and unprocessed information to the reader. In their text A Sequence for Academic Writing, Behrens, Rosen, and Beedles note that you should use quotations when the source’s language is memorable and adds “liveliness” to your writing, or when you want “a source to lend authority and credibility to your own writing.” When using a quotation, incorporate it smoothly into your own stream of language, rather than merely dropping it in without an introduction or signal phrase. See the note on historical evidence above for methods of citing quotations. While ample quotation can make for a strong paper, you should keep them short, never more than twenty-five words. The assertion, paragraph, or paper should contain primarily your own words, so you should use only memorable, illustrative, or poignant words or phrases of your source. A few words or a phrase is generally sufficient to convey your point.
STANDARDS
To meet the standard for this tool the work must:
£ Select evidence that directly and clearly supports the argument or interpretation.
£ Identify sources sufficiently and as part of sentences.
£ Provide the author, type, and a time reference, if available.
£ Use short quotations.
£ Use sufficient evidence to support the thesis. (For longer works.)
£ Draw on mostly primary and some secondary sources. (For longer works.)
To exceed the standard for this tool the work must meet the criteria above and do one or more of the following:
£ Use substantial evidence to support the thesis. (For longer works.)
£ Blend evidence smoothly throughout the work. (For longer works.)

Examples of points of evidence, one for a secondary source and one for a primary source:
–In a 2004 essay, historian Paul Israel notes that Thomas Edison was key to the “technologies we associate with our modern, technological society.” Edison founded basic industries, according to Israel, but his “most important contribution was a new method of invention” that became the first industrial research laboratory.
–Thomas Edison linked his invention “factory” to the need of the new business enterprises of the time. In an 1877 letter to the head of Western Union Telegraph, Edison asked the company for $40,000 that would allow for the creation of “unusual facilities” for “perfecting any kind of Telegraphic invention.”
Tool 4: Show Empathy
By developing an appreciation of how others see, and saw, the world, we gain range, depth, and openness in our thinking. You should be able to explain the lived experiences, decisions, and actions of people in a specific historical and social context. And you should be able to demonstrate understanding of how people in the past thought, felt, made decisions, acted, and faced consequences.You should try to be open to their experience, attitudes, and ideas, even when you don’t agree with them. Try to show that you understand how they were influenced by the times in which they lived. This is empathy or historical perspective, but it doesn’t mean that you have to agree with the people you read about. It means that you understand “where they are coming from” even if you find their ideas, words, and actions repugnant. The expression of empathy or historical perspective can be any length, a short paragraph like the one shown below or much longer commentaries. You should make direct reference to the source or sources by author, use some of the words from the sources, place the people in their historical context, and show understanding of the lived experiences of the people in the sources. Unlike other work in this class, examples of empathy can be written in first person.

STANDARDS:
To meet the standard for this tool the work must:
£ Show a basic understanding of how people in the past decided, acted, and faced consequences.
£ Indicate an impression of how people in the past thought or felt.
£ Show how people in the past were influenced by their historical and social context.
£ Show openness to ideas and actions of people in the past.
£ Uses the words of people in the past.
To exceed the standard for this tool the work must meet the criteria above and do one or more of the following:
£ Show insight and complexity in addressing people in the past.
£ Show a keen sensibility of how people in the past thought or felt about their experiences.
Example of a one-paragraph informal comment:
Immigrants really had a difficult time when they came to America. I can see that both Chinese and Jewish immigrants faced discrimination even though they came here to have a better life. Mary Tape just wanted to send her kids to good schools, but when she did they were “hated.” And Jews came from Russia but said “they were safer from assault and insult in that country than they are on the streets of Chicago.” Maybe it was because they were both seen as “different” than the white, Anglo, Christian Americans who were already in America. Both groups probably set themselves apart from society by living in neighborhoods where there were others like them. I can see that in the article by Jacob Riis. He showed how New York was divided up into these little communities of immigrants. That was probably more comfortable for them and gave them access to things that they might not find outside their own community, so it was understandable. It also gave New York its “cosmopolitan character,” as Riis said. Maybe that’s true for all of the United States at that time.
Scroll down for an explicated paragraph that incorporates the Tools.
Example of a coherent paragraph incorporating most of the guidelines above.

Although there was a great disparity between rich and poor, the technological innovations of the late-nineteenth century thrust the country into the modern age. Invention and scientific advances came to be applied to industrial work, spawning new approaches, economic expansion, and innovative solutions to factory problems. According to the historian Brent Glass in a 2006 essay, the engineer John A Roebling created some of the most “daring structures” in the world, bridges that were both “functional and beautiful” including his “masterpiece,” the Brooklyn Bridge, completed in 1883. In a 2004 essay, the historian Paul Israel notes that Thomas Edison was key to the “technologies we associate with our modern, technological society.” For Israel, however, Edison’s “most important contribution was a new method of invention” that became the first industrial research laboratory. Edison linked his invention “factory” to the need of the new business enterprises of the time. In an 1877 letter Edison asked the head of Western Union Telegraph, the company for $40,000 that would allow for the creation of “unusual facilities” for “perfecting any kind of Telegraphic invention.” Similarly, while working on improving communications, Alexander Graham Bell wrote in 1878 “It is possible to connect every man’s house, office or factory with a central station, so as to give him direct communication with his neighbors.” Evaluation of the example paragraph.
General Caveat: The paragraph includes few or no errors in writing mechanics and follows scholarly conventions of style and usage.

Tool 1: It shows understanding of the period in question.

Tool 2: It shows understanding of four sources, two secondary and two primary.

Tool 3a: The paragraph Begins with a clear premise to give the work focus and coherence.

Tool 3b: Evidence is well-selected and directly supports the thesis.

Tool 3b: The author clearly and properly identifies the sources used.

Tool 3b: Points of evidence use several short quotations.

Tool 4: Empathy is not expressed overtly, but may be implied in the way the paragraph shows openness to the actions of Edison and Bell and in the way they are placed in their historical context.

ASSIGNMENT I
Answer all questions. Number your responses. Leave a space between each response.
Save your file to your own computer or storage media in MS Word (.doc or .docx).
–For all responses apply the “General Caveat: Be Scholarly.”
1. Write an explanation of the period from antiquity to the 1760s as outlined in the Overview Essay by John Demos. Apply Tool 1 .
2. What is the main argument of Laurel Thatcher Ulrich in her essay on colonial Boston? Note that you are NOT describing the topic of her essay, but what she believes about that topic. What is her claim or interpretation? Respond in two or three sentences. Apply Tool 2a .
3. Write a brief examination of the source by Thomas Prince. Read the background essay that precedes the source before reading the source itself. Apply Tool 2b .
4. “European motivations varied among those who set out to colonize the ‘new world’ as colonial projects were established as both economic and religious enterprises.” How did each of the four primary sources in the section on Colonization support this thesis? Respond in one point of evidence for each source. Apply Tool 3b .
5. “Although women in the colonial period clearly were subordinate to men, they found ways to cope with their status, express their views, and bring change in their lives.” How did each of the four sources in the section on “Women in the Colonial Period” support this thesis? Respond in one point of evidence for each of the four sources. Apply Tool 3b .
6. Explain African America immigration in the colonial period, based on the three sources in “Slaves in the Colonial Period.” Respond in a coherent paragraph. Apply Tool 3 .
7. Comment informally on the two primary sources (Frethorne and Pond) in the section on Life in the Early Colonies.” Respond in a coherent paragraph. Apply Tool 4 .

Points Available: 17
General Caveat: Be Scholarly: 1 point
Tool 1. Understand the Past: 7 points
Tool 2. Understand Sources: 2 points
Tool 3. Use History: 5 points
Tool 4: Show Empathy: 2 points

You may use this checklist to ensure proper completion of the assignment:
£ Did you number your responsesand leave a space between each?
£ Did you answer every question?
£ Did you follow the indicated Toolfor each question?
£ Did you save a copyof the file in MS Word format?

Submission Procedure:
1. On the Main Menu click “Submit Assignments Here”
2. Click “Assignment I Dropbox”
3. Under “ASSIGNMENT SUBMISSION” click “Browse My Computer.”
4. Upload your file in MS Word format only!
5. Do not post any part of your assignment to the “Comment” box.
6. Click submit
Questions:
Points Available: 17
General Caveat: Be Scholarly: 1 point
Tool 1. Understand the Past: 7 points
Tool 2. Understand Sources: 2 points
Tool 3. Use History: 5 points
Tool 4: Show Empathy: 2 points

ASSIGNMENT II
Answer all questions. Number your responses. Leave a space between each response.
Save your file to your own computer or storage media in MS Word (.doc or .docx).
–For all responses apply the “General Caveat: Be Scholarly.”

2. What is the main argument of Benjamin Irvin in his essay on Benjamin Franklin? Note that you are NOT describing the topic of his essay, but what he believes about that topic. What is his claim or interpretation? Respond in two or three sentences. Apply Tool 2a .
3. Write a brief examination of the source by Benjamin Franklin. Read the background essay that precedes the source before reading the source itself. Apply Tool 2b .
4. “The emergence of a new American nation-state was not just about the ‘Founding Fathers.’ There were others who were engaged in the events that led to the formation of the new republic.” How did each of the seven sources in the section on Revolution and Constitution support this thesis? Respond in one point of evidence for each source. Apply Tool 3b .
5. “Nationalism grew dramatically in late-eighteenth century as Americans went through a period of self-examination and celebration of their new life as an independent nation.” How did each of the seven sources in the section on “New Nation” support this thesis? Respond in one point of evidence for each source. Apply Tool 3b .
6. Comment informally on any ONE primary source that seemed especially meaningful to you in the sections titled “Revolution and Constitution” or “New Nation.” Respond in a coherent paragraph. Apply Tool 4 .

Points Available: 17
General Caveat: Be Scholarly: 1 point
Tool 1. Understand the Past: 7 points
Tool 2. Understand Sources: 2 points
Tool 3. Use History: 5 points
Tool 4: Show Empathy: 2 points
Assignment 3
ASSIGNMENT III

Answer all questions. Number your responses. Leave a space between each response.
Save your file to your own computer or storage media in MS Word (.doc or .docx).
–For all responses apply the “General Caveat: Be Scholarly.”
2. Write a one paragraph summary of the essay by Marie Jenkins Schwartz .Apply Tool 2a
3. Write a brief collective examination of the two primary sources on Antebellum Religion. Respond in a coherent paragraph. Apply Tool 2b .
4. Discuss the role and status of women in the early-nineteenth centuries, and how they coped with their position in American society, based on the four sources in “Women in the Antebellum Period.” Respond in a coherent paragraph. Apply Tool 3 .
5. Explain the nature of reform from the perspective of the Transcendentalist movement, based on the four sources in Antebellum Reform. Respond in a coherent paragraph. Apply Tool 3 .
6. Comment informally on the source by Hannah Valentine. Respond in a coherent paragraph. Apply Tool 4 .

ASSIGNMENT IV

Answer all questions. Number your responses. Leave a space between each response.
Save your file to your own computer or storage media in MS Word (.doc or .docx).

–For all responses apply the “General Caveat: Be Scholarly.”
2. Write a one paragraph summary of the essay by M.J. Smith on American Regionalism. Apply Tool 2a.
3. Write a brief collective examination of the three primary sources in the section on Antebellum Politics. Respond in a coherent paragraph. Respond in a coherent paragraph. Apply Tool 2b .
4. Explain how women and African Americans attempted to secure their place in the nation during the antebellum period as show in the section on Citizenship in Antebellum America. Respond in a thesis statement. Apply Tool 3a
5. How did each of the six sources in the section on Citizenship in Antebellum America support the thesis you wrote for question 4? Respond in one point of evidence for each source. Apply Tool 3b .
6. Explain the debate over American nationalism as reflected in the documents on Sectionalism and Secession. Respond in a coherent paragraph. Apply Tool 3 .
7. Comment informally on any primary source in the section on Citizenship in Antebellum America. Respond in a coherent paragraph. Apply Tool 4 .

Points Available: 17
General Caveat: Be Scholarly: 1 point
Tool 1. Understand the Past: 7 points
Tool 2. Understand Sources: 2 points
Tool 3. Use History: 5 points
Tool 4: Show Empathy: 2 points
ASSIGNMENT V

Answer all questions. Number your responses. Leave a space between each response.
Save your file to your own computer or storage media in MS Word (.doc or .docx).
–For all responses apply the “General Caveat: Be Scholarly.”
2. Write a collective explanation of the Civil War Letters. Respond in a coherent paragraph. Apply Tool 2.
3. Discuss African Americans and emancipation in the Civil War era, as suggested by the sources on Emancipation. Respond in a thesis statement. Apply Tool 3a
4. How did each of the four sources in the section on Emancipation support the thesis you wrote for question 4? Respond in one point of evidence for each source. Apply Tool 3b .
5. Explain how African Americans and women and attempted to secure their place in the nation after the civil war, as suggested by the sources on the Post Bellum Period. Respond in a coherent paragraph. Apply Tool 3.
6. Comment informally on the two Letters of Mattie Oblinger in the section on Women in the West. Respond in a coherent paragraph. Apply Tool 4 .

Points Available: 17
General Caveat: Be Scholarly: 1 point
Tool 1. Understand the Past: 7 points
Tool 2. Understand Sources: 2 points
Tool 3. Use History: 5 points
Tool 4: Show Empathy: 2 points

Resources:
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