Water Bottle Refill Station to reduce pollution

Biology (and other Life Sciences)
Topic: Water Bottle Refill Station to reduce pollution
Style: MLA

Technical paper ( Sapphire Materials )


The purpose is to become familiar with the behavior of materials in specific applications. The technical paper will build upon course material; its technical difficulty and content should be comparable to Callister/Rethwisch textbook.

Topic for the Technical Paper
Sapphire Materials

Basic format and section headings

Abstract 1- short paragraph

Introduction (about the subject matter)

Material properties

Comparison with other materials

Processing Techniques




Single spaced with 1-inch margins. 10-12 inch font.

8 page maximum; content is more important than length.

Include figures and tables. All figures and tables MUST have appropriate captions.

All references must be appropriately cited throughout the text and listed using ISO format at the end of the paper (see formatting examples for the outline).

Grading criteria

Format: abstract, introduction, material properties, comparisons, applications, processing, testing, conclusions.

Do not include Table of Contents; not necessary for a paper that is 8 pages maximum.

Avoid the use of quotes; Too many quotes, “copy/paste”, not student’s work.

Appropriate Technical content; the paper is not an infomercial with superficial content. The paper is not significantly beyond the scope of the course and obviously not the student’s work.

Organization of paper; coherent sections, integrated paper; avoid chunks of text with no section headings;

Start early, so paper is not a rough draft done at the last minute.

Quality of research – use multiple relevant sources.

Figures and tables are included, relevant to topic, formatted properly (numbered and captioned).

Figures are discussed in text.

Good quality photos/images/tables are included and are not blurry.

References – proper format, consistent format, and cited throughout text; 5 minimum, not including course textbook.

Approved topic, submission of term paper.

Quality of analysis or summary; student appears to understand what is being explained.

Interesting or informative.

Conscientious effort is apparent in final result.

Focus of paper is on materials and engineering.

Title: Sapphire Materials
Abstract: Sapphire materials are materials and components that are made up of monocrystalline forms of aluminum oxide. They are usually hard and have superior optical and mechanical properties.
I. Introduction
A. The development of sapphire crystals follows a process that was introduced by a French chemist, AugusteVerneuil. He deposited alumina powder into a hydroxen flame, creating the synthetic material that was similar to the natural gemstone.
II. Materials
A. The sapphire crystals can be doped with several elements that enhance their appearance and properties.
i. Chromium and titanium dopants
a. They produce a reddish ruby material
ii. Titanium-doped alumina and titanium-doped sapphire
b. They produce a blue colored material when they are heated.
III. Material properties
A. Sapphire has with superior mechanical properties, has superior light transmission ability and is a stable component.
B. It is hard.
C. It has high thermal conductivity and is transparent in appearance.
IV. Processing
A. The sapphire crystals can be manufactured through the melting and deposition processes. Alumina powder is deposited into a hydroxen flame, forming a sapphire-like material.
V. Applications
A. Sapphire materials can be used in electronic, optical and photonic applications.
B. Other applications include; jewelry, valve balls, bearing balls and in wear parts.
C. Sapphire is alsouseful in optical windows due to its transparency and optical characteristic.
VI. References
[1] MolTech GmbH Molecular Technology – Sapphire
[2] Saint-Gobain Crystals – Sapphire Components
[3] Dobrovinskaya, Elena R., Leonid A. Lytvynov, and Valerian Pishchik.Sapphire: material, manufacturing, applications. Springer Science & Business

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